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Author: Pencho Penchev

Abstract:

The paper discusses the main characteristic features of economic history. The author makes an attempt to highlight the meaning and social importance of research in this field. These problems are placed in the light of the achievements and shortcomings of the economic history in Bulgaria. The author argues that the cliometric studies of economic history, valuable as they are, are not sufficient to reveal the main trends in world economic development. In terms of meaning, economic history research only makes sense if it brings some benefit to society.

Key words: Economic history, theory, history

JEL: N01, B13, B23

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Author: Ivan Roussev

Abstract:

The object of the research of the present article is the tracing out of the diversity in the spreading of the modern economic culture of the Bulgarian nation in the epoch of the Bulgarian National Revival period (18th 19th CC) a diversity mainly in respect of geography and time. Both in Europe and on the Balkans the modern economic culture springs up and gives its first visible results at the beginning of the New Time. The Bulgarians are no exception to that process, although it appears with them later in comparison with some of the peoples on the European continent. As with the nations on the Mediterranean and in Western Europe it is the trade among the Bulgarians which is the economic sphere to be the earliest and most notably affected by modernisation. That is why the article deals mainly with the modern trade culture of the Bulgarian National Revival period on the basis of which to a great extent appear and develop the other economic areas of the posr-Renaissance society the protoindustries and industry, services and credit. An attempt has been made to enlarge the research in that direction as well. The results of the research show that the highest degree in the spreading of the modern economic culture among the Bulgarian society was achieved during the third quarter of the 19th C (50ies 70ies of the century) in the following centres and regions: among the Bulgarian community in the capital of the Ottoman empire Istanbul, in the sub-Balkan settlements (Kalofer, Klisura, Sopot, Kazanlak, Koprivshtitsa and others), Central Northern Bulgaria (mainly Gabrovo and Turnovo), the Sliven-Kotel region (Sliven, Kotel, Zheravna, Gradets, Medven), the towns along the Danube (Rouse, Svishtov, Lom, Silistra,Toulcha), in some of the centres of the Bulgarian Diaspora in Wallachia, Moldova and Bessarabia (Bucharest, Krayova, Braila, Galatz, Giurgiu, Yash, Bolgrad, Foc?ani). Other regions are represented only partially on the map of the Bulgarian economic modernisation during the Bulgarian National Revival period with certain separate town centres: South Bulgaria (Stara Zagora and Plovdiv), South-Western Bulgaria (Samokov and Sofia), the north-eastern territories and the Black sea region (Varna, Shumen and Burgas) and there are certain regions which are missing completely from this map: North-Western Bulgaria, Macedonia, the south-eastern territories, a large part of Dobrudzha.

Key words: the modern economic culture, Bulgarian National Revival period (18th 19th CC), modernisation, the modern trade culture, the protoindustries, industry, services, credit

JEL: N01

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Author: Petko Petkov

Abstract:

This article analyzes the understanding of Georgi St. Rakovski on the economic situation and opportunities for economic development of the Bulgarians on the basis of his preserved documentary heritage. His opinion about the geographical location, the demographic potential and the social status of the Bulgarians is shown. His attitude towards the ruling Ottoman government, neighboring states and Great powers is revealed in connection with the economic progress of the Bulgarians.

Key words: Georgi Stoykov Rakovski, economic condition, economic development, demographic nationalism, economic nationalism, Bulgarian trade association

JEL: N01, B10

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Author: Hristiyan Atanasov

Abstract:

This article aims to present the financial information of the Tsarigradski newspaper published for about fifteen years. Hundreds of weekly papers, which contain an extraordinary volume of materials dedicated to finance: tables, reports, analyzes, orders from the Ottoman government, and so on, have been reviewed.
The article does not claim for comprehensiveness. We are not able to present all the materials they are too many. The cliometric data that can be collected from the newspaper will also not be presented. Here we will adopt a problematic thematic approach and will present only a few of the materials published in the newspaper. They are related to the determination of the value of coins and paper money, the way prices are formed, information for credit institutions, etc. We hope that the article will contribute to increase the interest in the digital editions of the Bulgarian newspapers, which we receive as an inheritance from the Revival period. They are a prime source of historical research and are fully accessible on the Internet on the website of the National Library "St. St. Cyril and Methodius".

Key words: documents, sources, financial history, coins, paper money, prices, credit institutions

JEL: N13

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Author: Milko Palangurski

Abstract:

In 1879, after the Liberation of Bulgaria, the Constituent National Assembly was convened to elaborate the constitution of the country. Among the 230 delegate 97 are tradesman, which makes 42.20% of the assembled. This makes retailers the largest professional group in the constitutional assembly. The traders taking part in the University of National and World Economy are people with a solid education for the time being. It is by no means elitist, but it is at a level that allows them to occupy key positions in the social life of the Bulgarian society ecclesiastical-national municipalities, church activities, creation and development of educational institutions and their modernization and Europeanization. Their role in creating the Libraries Network, publishing and distributing books and textbooks and maintaining the national newspaper network is enormous. They have gained some political experience in the Ottoman Empire, as logically this happens in the three main spheres local self-government, which is the result of the reform of the Empire, the struggle for a national church a movement that engages all intelligent forces and third, through participation, financing, and influencing the revolutionary flow. Without being a driving force in the debates at the Constituent Assembly, they occupy positions that sets the tone for the liberal model of governance imposed for the next seven decades.

Key words: traders, constitution, political experience, local selfgovernment, independent church, revolutionary struggles

JEL: N01

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Author: Miroslav Toshev

Abstract:

This work presents the gathered primary material on the topic of the natural trade among Bulgarian lands through the second half of XIX and the first decades of XX century. Its made a try for some primary conclusions regarding its distinctive features.
I hope that the represented materials can serve for a good basis about further researches as the distant goal is to reveal in maximum detail the system of natural trade among Bulgarian lands and to be used in the reconstruction of the economic models in the far way past.

Key words: Bulgarian lands: end of XIX century; first decades of XX century, trade, natural exchange, exchange in kind

JEL: N01

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Author: Aleksandar Shivarov

Abstract:

The paper explores the foreign trade of Bulgaria in the years 1900 1945. It depicts the development of merchandise trade on the background of the countrys economic growth during the first half of the 20th century. GDP estimates for the whole period enable the evaluation of trade openness and its comparison to that of other European countries. Trade outcomes are assessed in terms of level and growth (the intensive margin), and diversification (extensive margin). The results of the analysis suggest increased dynamism in the Bulgarian economy and its external sector in the period between the two world wars. This newly found resilience enables the economy to recover after World War I and the Great Depression.

Key words: Foreign trade, Trade openness, Trade diversity, Twentieth century

JEL: F14, N73, N74

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Author: Liliana Veleva

Abstract:

In the period between the two world wars most countries started reforms in the system of state-owned economic institutions. After the end of the First World War, the reorganization of the Bulgarian institutions engaged in foreign trade began. In the current article are presented the more important administrative and managerial aspects related to their activities and participation in the overall organization of the foreign trade of Bulgaria in the period 1919-1939.

Key words: international trade, import-export, economic institutions, ministries, the Food- export department, Export Institute

JEL: N14, N44

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Author: Evgeni Kostov

Abstract:

The article has two main highlights. First of all, the issue of constitutional ministerial criminal responsibility in Bulgaria in the period after the Liberation until the end of the 20s of the twentieth century is discussed. Secondly, the chronology of the requisition of the Plakalnitza Mine during the First World War is reflected and commented in connection to the work of the Third State Court (19191923). The author concludes that the Public Prosecution was unfounded and tendentious on the accusation against the former Cabinet Ministers of V. Radoslavov who ruled Bulgaria in the period 19131918.

Key words: Third State Court in Bulgaria, Plakalnitza Mine, World War I

JEL: N14, N44

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Author: Rositsa Zlatinska

Abstract:

The text presents and analyzes the function and development of the Bulgarian Agricultural Bank in the period of the First and Second Balkan Wars. After an almost eight-year period of peace, the agricultural institution faces the challenge of developing credit activity in a military period. The text examines not only the general credit activities of the bank, but also the changes of the operation of the bank branches during the war period.
An indicator of the state of the Bulgarian Agricultural Bank during the war period (19121913) compared to the period preceding the wars are the changes in the total number and amount of the active banking operations. During the wars, the number of active banking operations and their amount experienced some decline. This decline is explained by the changes in the country's economic life as a result of the two Balkan wars.
A new moment in the activity of the credit institution is the provision of financial support to the refugees coming from the neighboring Balkan countries after the end of the Second Balkan War. The Agricultural Bank lend money to the refugees for food and for the construction and furnishing of their farms.

Key words: Bulgarian Agricultural Bank, agricultural credit, loan, deposits, credit activities

JEL: N00, N23, N24, N43

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Author: Nikolay Nenovsky

Abstract:

This paper studies the dynamics of bank efficiency in Bulgaria for two different years in the last century, in particular 1923 and 1928, related to the financial stabilization and financial crisis respectively. In so doing several inter-dependencies has been detected related mainly with the reaction of different type of banks to the financial crisis and financial stabilization. The bank efficiency is measured by using nontraditional method for the measurement of bank efficiency non-parametric method Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and parametric method "stochastic frontier analysis" (SFA). The non-traditional methods, such as DEA and SFA are more sophisticated method than the traditional accounting measurement of bank efficiency, overcoming traditional approachs disadvantages. The banks are classified on different sub groups in order to capture the reaction of different bank groups in respect to the financial crisis and the financial stabilization. We have collected the date from the official bank balance sheets as well as the profit and loss statements of Bulgarian credit institutions, published in the State Gazette, in order to define the inputs and outputs of banks. These methods have been applied in numerous studies of bank efficiency in a group of countries, but they are not used for the purpose of measuring the efficiency of the Bulgarian banking system for historical data.

Key words: Bulgarian monetary history; bank efficiency; DEA analysis, SFA analysis

JEL: N24; D24; G21

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Author: Marco Dimitrov

Abstract:

The main idea of of this text is to show the degree of participation of the major state-owned banks, the Bulgarian National Bank, the Bulgarian Agricultural and Cooperative Bank (until 1934 Bulgarian Agricultural Bank), the Bulgarian Central Cooperative Bank (until 1934) in the economic development of Bulgaria during the interwar period (1919-1939), as well as their role in the formation and implementation of the state economic policy. The aim is to define more precisely the nature and content of this policy and the type of economy that is imposed in the country in the 1930s.

Key words: history of banks, national banks, economic history of Bulgaria, economic of 30s of the twentieth century, managed economy, regulated economy, state and economy, institutions

JEL: N24, N44

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Author: Peter Stoyanov

Abstract:

This publication aims to provide a more in-depth critical view of the Bulgarian Income Tax Act of 1933 from the point of the officially declared motives for its amendment and their relation to the legal framework. With the help of the fact-finding analysis, the argument for complete discrepancy between motives and legislation is defended. The old tendency for fiscal fanaticism and lobbyism, accompanied by contradiction, inadequacy and inefficiency is revealed.

Key words: income tax, patent taxation, tax policy

JEL: N23, N24, N43, N44

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Author: Levent Kayapinar

Abstract:

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Key words: Tahir(Land Survey), Kazanluk, Akcha Kazanluk, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire, Early Ottoman History, Demographic history, Economic History

JEL: N23, N93

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Author: Ayse Kayapinar

Abstract:

The mukataas were an important part of the productive and fiscal system of the Ottoman Empire in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Ottoman Empire employed the word mukataa to designate parts of public revenue units (such as mines, rice paddles, salt marshes, workshops for soap making, candles, fishing grounds, etc.) that belonged to the state treasury and were operated by either government officials, called emins, or by granting concessions to private persons, Muslims or non-Muslims, appointed as amils. The difference between the two forms of management is the following: In the first case, the emin operated for the state and received remuneration, whereas in the second, the amil paid a fixed amount to the treasury in order to take over the iltizam (tax farm). During the first centuries of the Ottoman Empire, the management of the mukataas in the name of the state through emins was more widespread as a mode of exploitation. But the monetary crisis of the second half of the sixteenth century in the Ottoman Empire obliged the state to look for new sources of income (particularly in cash) in order to provide funds for the state treasure. Therefore, the iltizam system gained importance and the role of the multezim as a cash provider to the state treasury increased.
In this study, the state incomes obtained by mukataa exploitation in the region of Vidin will be examined. The distribution of iltizams, their process of functioning and the contribution to the state treasury by the revenues of the tax farms and the multezims themselves are among the topics to be explored.

Key words: Ottoman Empire, Balkans, Vidin, Mukataa, Iltizam

JEL: N23, N93

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Author: Krasimira Mutafova

Abstract:

On the basis of unpublished and partly published Ottoman register material from 16th and 17th century the focus of this study is concentrated on the economic development of Troyan and Troyan region during the first centuries under Ottoman rule. The monetary and natural components of the land rent, introduced by various in type and amount taxes in the detailed (mufassal) registers, reveal the whole range of crops and specific livelihoods of the population in settlements of the region. The comparative analysis of this compact information outlines several essential characteristics in their economic development. First of all the indications of continuity from the time of the medieval Bulgarian state. On the second - the changes that occurred under the influence of the new Muslim inhabitants, including in the field of crafts. Third the influence of local traditions on the economic activity of the Muslim population. The discussed Ottoman documents reveal a quite different economic characteristic of the region from the one imposed in the historiography, and especially in the local history studies, which hardly suggests the development of Troyan as one of the most important centers of craft production during the Revival and Post-liberation period.

Key words: Troyan, Troyan region, economic characteristic, Ottoman period, settlement structure, Ottoman documents, Mufassal defteris

JEL: N53, N93

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Author: Gergana Georgieva

Abstract:

The article presents new information on the socio-economic development of Svishtov in the 19th c. extracted from unpublished Ottoman documents. In the 19th c. Svishtov developed as one of the main Danubian harbors in the Lower Danube which played crucial role in trade relations between Bulgarian lands, Wallachia and Central Europe. It is characterized by intensive economic progress, based mainly on trade and production of clothes and shoes. The new primary sources reveal details about its socio-economic structure. There was a high level of specialization of merchants salt trade was one of its basic characteristics. It is also evident the predominance of the small scale merchandise. The land transport was as well presented as water transport. The relatively well-developed economy of Svishtov is presented also by the high annual income declared by the taxpayers.

Key words: Balkan economic development in the 19th century; Danubian harbors, Svishtov, trade between Bulgarian lands and Wallachia, Bulgarian merchants

JEL: N09, N93

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Author: Nevena Nedelcheva

Abstract:

The report presents preliminary remarks on demographic and professional structure of Razgrad and Popovo towns in the middle of the 19th century. It is based on unpublished Ottoman documents temettuat defters. Those documents provide valuable information for the demographic picture, social, ethnic and religious characteristics of the settlements in the Ottoman Empire. It introduces new unpublished data on the population of the two cities and their social and economic status.
This study focuses on Popovo and Razgrads urban development and presents information about their households, their incomes and taxes. The demographic structure of the two cities, the peculiarities of their territorial organization, professional structure and some details of the economic development of the communities in Razgrad and Popovo are also commented. The research presents general information about the economic outlook of these towns, it is focused on the professional profile of their population, the leading industries, and specific occupations. Thus, in the period 1845-1846 Razgrad appears as a center of Muslim and non-Muslim communities, having a population of app. 6000-7000 people. The professional structure of Razgrad is dominated by the agricultural sector. Trade, textiles and logging are also widely held sectors of the town's economy. The other settlement, Popovo is a village with a population of nearly 300 people and a dominant agricultural appearance.

Key words: temmettuat defters, demographic structure, professional structure, Ottoman Empire, economic

JEL: N93

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Author: Nikolay Todorov

Abstract:

The present article aims at examining the occupational structure of the population of Tulcea in the 40s of the 19th century. Unpublished materials from the Ottoman Archives in Istanbul have been used, and in particular the Temettuat Register (Defter) with a signature ML.VRD.TMT.d 12755. The creation of the discussed Temettuat Defter coincides with the period of economic rise of Tulcea and the formation of the Bulgarian community in the city. During the examined period Tulcea established itself as an extremely multiethnic city, a feature of many of the commercial centers through the epoch. From the analysis of the document it is clear that the trade- domestic and foreign was prevailing in the economic development of Tulcea. The highest incomes were from the crafts engaged in that field. Tulcea provided the entrepreneurs of the epoch an untapped market with great opportunities. From its port goods were exported to craftsmen from a very wide region - North-eastern Bulgaria and the eastern parts of The Balkan Mountains.

Key words: Tulcea, Temettuat Register, trade, craftsman

JEL: N00, N09

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Author: Ivaylo Naydenov

Abstract:

In the first part of my paper, I am going to deal with the concepts of entrepreneurship and particularly with commercial entrepreneurship. In the light of all existing theories, I use the paradigm of Israel Kirzner and Mark Casson adopted by some Greek historians such as Maria-Christina Chatziioannou. According to them, the entrepreneur is an agent who earns a profit, buying cheap commodities and selling them at dear prices.
In the second part, I deal with the entrepreneurial activity of brothers Hristo, Nikola and Ivan Todorovi Pulievi. They established commercial enterprise with their relative Evlogi Georgiev (1839). A few years later this brother Hristo Georgiev was also enrolled in the work of the trade house Pulievi-Georgievi. From the early 1840s onwards Hristo and Nikola T. Pulievi expanded their network in Ottoman Bulgaria. After the Crimean War (1853-1856) Nikola T. Puliev restricted his activities. Much more intriguing is the case with Ivan Todorov Puliev who lived and worked part-time in Galati and Braila. It is also interesting to note Ivans mercantile acumen in terms of his idea about the expansion of Pulievis network in Serres. Moreover, he wanted to settle down permanently in this town in order to present the mercantile house Pulievi- Georgievi in this region. This idea failed but still it is worth noting because it gives us inquisitive clues about Ivans business behavior.
In many respects, Pulievi dealt as their Greek colleagues. Of course, there are some important differences. All these things should be discussed because this is the only way of broadening our overall knowledge on the entrepreneurships nature.

Key words: Bulgarian National Revival period, Pulievi, theory, entrepreneurship, merchants, mercantile activities

JEL: N83

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Author: Mariana Drumeva

Abstract:

The article explores the economic life in the Bulgarian lands with respect to the activity of one of the most important Bulgarian merchants in the third quarter of the 19th century Tsvyatko Radoslavov. The structure of exports and imports of its companies is a representation of the state of the art of the main branches of the economy agriculture, livestock breeding, crafts, emerging industry and the needs of the local market. His business practices, the companies and the associations he created, illustrate the professional growth of the Bulgarian trade union and its transformation into a major engine of economic modernization in our land during the period under review.

Key words: Ottoman Empire, Bulgarian Revival, trading company, trading network, Commercial Law

JEL: N73

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Author: Nadya Manolova-Nikolova

Abstract:

The article aims to publish and analyze a valuable Ottoman document from 1872 to 1875. The document is kept in the State Archives of the town of Pernik. It represents an official register of loans granted by property for orphans. The register is the so-called Orphan's Fund in the town of Tran (today in Bulgaria), in the document Iznebol . The creation of orphan's funds in between 60s and 70s of the ղ century was done by the reformers in the Danube Vilayet (Province) of the Ottoman Empire. Their set-up and importance is very poorly studied.

Key words: the Ottoman Empire, Orphan's Fund, Bulgaria, Bulgarian settlements

JEL: N00, N93

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Author: Margarita Marinova

Abstract:

The survey provides an overview of the private credit institutions in Svishtov in the period 1878-1912. The number of commercial and banking houses presented on the credit market, the sources of their capital and their role for the economic development of the city are specified. A brief overview of the history and activities of the two Svishtov Savings Joint Stock Companies is made. The question why no private joint-stock bank is established in Svishtov is explored.

Key words: bank houses, Ist Svistov Savings Joint Stock Company, Svishtov Savings Joint Stock Company Danube, short-term credit, mobilization of the capital

JEL: N73

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Author: Emilia Vacheva

Abstract:

This article traces agriculture in the Svishtov municipality after the Liberation until the end of the 19th century. The paper is based on reports from official editions of collections, almanacs, a report, published statistical data, as well as on existing research on the issue. The agrarian transformations in Svishtov and the district are taken under consideration, the state policy on agriculture and its application in the municipality is analyzed, and the development of agriculture is outlined.

Key words: agriculture, cereals, livestock breeding, viticulture and wine production, fishing

JEL: N63

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Author: Krasimir Krastev; Momchil Marinov

Abstract:

The last two decades of the 19 century are important and exponential period in the development of the Bulgarian rose producing industry. The main areas of exports for the rose products are formed - The US, England, France, Austria-Hungary, Russia and so on. Major Bulgarian rose trading companies are formed. Based on the numismatic material from the collection of Iskra Museum of history in Kazanlak and the accompanying data, the authors are trying to reconstruct the basic tendencies in the development of the Bulgarian rose producing industry in the period.

Key words: economic development, international relations, innovations, trading, international rose trading, gold and silver coins

JEL: E42, N23, N43

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Author: Petar Dobrev

Abstract:

The Holevich family, whose personal archives I am currently researching, were some of the richest and most influential landowners (or chiflikchii) in the region of Dobrudja prior to WWII. The most prominent member of the family was hadji Vasil Holevich, who apart from having a serious political career, was also doing business with one of the most important industrialists in the young Bulgarian state the Italian K.A. Vaccaro. At the end of the 19th century, they became partners in the sale of agricultural machinery.
My paper researches the complicated business contacts between Holevich and Vaccaro, which started promisingly but ended up with serious losses for the Italian. At a moment when the Bulgarian state budget was dependent of Vaccaro and the European loan, he was negotiating, Holevich was in a position not to answer the Italian's letters and didn't seem very concerned with collecting the money that was requested of him. This can show the powerful position local landowning elites had in Dobrudja, which allowed them to have the upper hand even against some of the most influential men in Sofia.

Key words: Balkan merchants, capitalist agriculture, Dobrudja, capital accumulation, political networks, merchant networks, Bulgaria, Italia

JEL: N94

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Author: Svetla Atanasova

Abstract:

Information about the activities of the banking house Gancho S. Paraskov and sons Kilifarevo (1876-1910) and the joint-stock company Gancho S. Paraskov and Gencho Yordanov Genchev Kilifarevo (1910-1923) are kept in the documentary fund of the company in the State Archives - Veliko Tarnovo. Banking house Gancho S. Paraskov and sons was established in Kilifarevo in 1876 and has as its object: opening of current accounts against personal and real guarantees, granting of loans against security with securities, precious objects and mortgage of real estate , collection of insurance policies and records, trade in checks and money transfers only for Bulgaria, exchange of foreign coins. The credit organization accepts short-term and long-term deposits at 5% annual interest. Together to this activity, the company trades with colonial, hardware and dyeing goods, wood, silk cocoons, flours and others. In 1910 the company expanded and restructured its operations. Since 13 October of the same year it has been officially listed in the Commercial Register as a joint stock company Gancho S. Paraskov and G. Yor. Genchev- Kilifarevo. The main partners and main shareholders of the economic organization are the sons of Gancho - Georgi and Stancho Paraskovi and their long - time employee Gencho Yordanov Genchev. The main activity of the newly formed company is manufactory trade. It maintains trade relations with numerous domestic suppliers from Turnovo, Svishtov, Rousse, Dryanovo, Varna and Sofia. Parashkovi's permanent clients include the inhabitants of Kilifarevo and Elena villages. On March 23, 1911, the company was granted a marketing authorization for silkworm grain. The joint stock company is a member of the Union of Bulgarian Joint-Stock Companies in 1920. The economic crisis of 1923 proved to be 457 disastrous for the activity of the Kilifarevo company and it ceased its activity.

Key words: banking house Gancho S. Paraskov and sons, joint-stock company Gancho S. Paraskov and Gencho Yordanov Genchev, Kilifarevo

JEL: F16

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Author: Marko Dimitrov

Abstract:

In this article the author makes an attempt, based on the available scientific literature to determine more precisely the content of such concepts as "Industry", "Proto-industrialization" and "Industrialization, that are key to clarifying the processes related to the consequences for the economy of industrial revolution in the XIX century. This aims to give a more accurate assessment of the history of economic development of Bulgaria after the establishment of the third Bulgarian State to 1944, and particularly - the processes in the industrial sector of its economy.

Key words: Industry, Proto-industrialization, history of Industrialization, Industrial revolution, Bulgarian Industrialization

JEL: N01, N10

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Author: Ivan Roussev

Abstract:

The theme of the early industrialization of the Ottoman Empire, particularly of the Balkans and the Bulgarian lands as part of the Empire until 1878, is still incompletely explored. The problem is not only the lack of reliable historical sources, but also the random and often incorrect use of economic concepts, which is leading to inaccurate interpretation of the available information. The purpose of this study is to clarify through reliance on the sources and historiographical analysis which and how many companies classified as factories existed in the Bulgarian lands until the Liberation (1878).

Key words: factory, the Bulgarian lands, the Ottoman Empire, industrialization

JEL: N01

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Author: Pencho Penchev

Abstract:

During the period of the so-called first Bulgarian capitalism (18781944) one of the most interesting problems that preoccupies the economists in the country is linked to the perspectives and consequences of the economic and political integration of Bulgaria and the other Balkan or European countries. They approached this issue with a large dose of realism. On the one hand, they are driven by a clear sense of backwardness, limited capacity and resources of the Bulgarian economy, suggesting the inclusion of the country in a larger market, but on the other they are not dramatically affected by the illusions of "civilizational choice" that must be made.

Key words: economic integration, Bulgaria, economists

JEL: B1

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Author: Lilyana Veleva

Abstract:

The industrialization of Bulgaria, conducted in the period 1944- 1989, is at the center of radical reforms to establish a socialist centrally planned economy. Discussed are the main aspects of this process - starting base, model of reconstruction, forced construction of industry and investment policy of the state, efficiency of production, urbanization and more. In certain stages of industrialization high quantitative results have been achieved, while showing a number of distortions. Some of them are considered and discussed as part of the reasons for the failure of socialism in Bulgaria.

Key words: socialist economy, industrialization, investment policy, socialist factories

JEL: N01, N10

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Author: Svetlana Ivanova

Abstract:

The object of presentation of the present article is the description as a representative example of the group of Orthodox Greeks tradesmen of long distances in the Ottoman home trade, especially clearly standing out in 17th 19th c. in the wide economic zone, covering countries between Europe and the Orient. The reason why the topic attracts attention is also because the tradesman of long distances is a basic figure and a dynamic agent of commerce, namely the Greeks of this professional group seem to have direct connection with the springing up of the Bulgarian tradesman as a leading figure in the society.

Key words: commerce, tradesman of long distances, non-Muslim zimma, inner migrations, perakende, Greek/rum, status of tradesmen of long distances, diaspora

JEL: N73

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Author: Radoslav Spasov

Abstract:

The rticle discusses aspects of urban economy in the Bulgarian lands under an Ottoman rule during the period 18001878 on such information is received by British diplomatic documents. If at the beginning of the XIX century reportedly mainly for the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula, it just before and after the Crimean War (18531856) data refer to most of the territories populated by Bulgarians. In British diplomatic correspondence there is a lot of information about trade relations, payment of taxes and the presence of the Bulgarians as part of the urban elite. The spread of the missions of the Foreign Ministry of Great Britain in Bulgarian lands under an Ottoman rule contribute to the advent of European economic relations in the urban sector and have a catalytic role in the process of modernization.

Key words: Bulgarian, Economic aspects, Urban economy, Great Britain, Bulgarian Revival

JEL: N93

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Author: Milko Palangurski

Abstract:

There's a special role and place for the deputies traders in the Bulgarian political corps. On a local level they are the key players in the political structure and political faces on a regional and national level. In the meantime their role is also of business leaders, political leaders on city and county level, whose funding to institutions and political parties provide personal network to create effective political structures and successful management of election campaigns. The strength of the commercial community in a political formation practically ensures not only its existence but it also guarantees a successful political activity. At the end of the nineteenth century they occupy about 1/3 of all political positions in the parties, parliaments, governments and other elected bodies. This enables them to become the main driving force behind the modernization of the country politically, economically and culturally.

Key words: Traders, elections, parliament, executive power, political parties

JEL: N73

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Author: Rositsa Zlatinska

Abstract:

The text presents and analyzes the legal documents relating to the agricultural cases. There are several documents that refer to the organization and operation of agricultural cases. These are: The statute of agricultural cases from 1878, The rules of agricultural cases from 1889 and a legal document of uppermost importance The Law on Agricultural crates from 1894, and its amendment from 1897.
The Statute of agricultural cases was released on July 27, 1878. It consists of 53 articles. The Statute of agricultural cases is the first legal document related to the organization, operation and management of the cases after the Liberation.
The second legal document is The rules of agricultural cases. It was released on February 25, 1889. It consists of 59 articles. After the adoption of this document the scope of the activities of the agricultural cases expands significantly.
They start to accept deposits and to lend money not only to farmers, but also to people from different social groups. Several attempts to adopt different laws are made between 1878 and 1894 but they all prove fruitless. The Law of agricultural cases from 1984 is developed by the Minister of Finance I. Geshov. It consists of 34 articles, which affect key points of the organization of the cases.
In order to overcome the existing problems of agricultural cases in 1897 the Parliament votes and adopts a new law of the cases. This law improves the structure, the whole organization and the management of the agricultural cases.
As a result of the adoption of the law from 1894 and its amendment of 1897 the agricultural cases become more organized and start to look like a modern credit organization.

Key words: agricultural cases, agricultural credit, law, legal documents, loan, interest.

JEL: N00, N43, N53

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Author: Petko Petkov

Abstract:

The report examines the legislation basis and the practical realization of material support of the Bulgarian Orthodox clergy. Shown is the initial state of the problem during the years of operation of the Bulgarian Exarchate as a specific Bulgarian proto-state in the Ottoman Empire (18701878). It analyzed in detail the question of the maintenance of the clergy after 1879, when is accepted the Tarnovo Constitution, according to which the Orthodox religion was dominant in the Principality of Bulgaria. Tracked the difficulties in developing and adopting the relevant texts in the new Exarchate statute partial application and refusal of the government to fulfill some of its obligations providing supplemental salary of urban and rural priests that happens only during the reign of Stefan Stambolov (18901891).
The review of the maintenance of the Bulgarian Orthodox clergy over a relatively long period confirms the findings and conclusions on the question of the attitude of the Bulgarian state to supposedly dominant Orthodox religion and Bulgarian Orthodox Church. As for the senior clergy in the Principality / Kingdom of Bulgaria, the problems of material sustainability are not as sharp, but generally it is insufficient for normal performance of the bishop's duties. But the unsatisfactory and incomplete resolve the issue of maintenance of the white clergy, and lack of opportunities for higher theological education leads to weak or insufficient motivation to make full and proper performance of his professional duties. Priests are the bridges by which church people (clergy and laity) communicate with each other. They largely not have any theological training nor the material means for a normal existence. So this kind of church activity remained at the level of household ritual common religiosity.

Key words: Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Bulgarian Principality/Kingdom, Orthodox clergy, material maintenance, church legislation

JEL: N33, N34

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Author: Evgeni Kostov

Abstract:

The Institute for constitutional Ministerial criminal liability in Bulgaria is based on article 155159 from the Constitution of the Bulgarian Principality, adopted in 1879. It provides for a specific procedure through which the members of the government to be judged outside of the civil courts. From 1880 to 1923, through this procedure four trials were held. In this case, we focus on the work of the Second State Court (1910 1914), in particular criminal offenses in construction activities committed in Sofia Municipality. The author makes a conclusion different from that of the State prosecution namely there are no legal grounds for the former minister of public buildings, roads and communications Iv. Halachev to be held accountable.

Key words: ministerial criminal offenses, Sofia municipality

JEL: K42

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Author: Ivaylo Naydenov

Abstract:

Various recent and past studies provide extensive in-depth information about the artisanal production in the Bulgarian lands during the Ottoman period (1519 c.). The existing literature delves into the distinctive features of the numerous types of crafts, looking into their regional distribution, the specific organization of the artisanal production, but also analyzes the contacts between producers and traders, and touches upon many other related issues. However, further aspects of the artisanal production in the Bulgarian lands during this period are worth to be outlined in order to provide better understanding of the topic.
An excellent opportunity to gain further in-sights into the artisanal production in the Bulgarian lands during the Ottoman period is to explore the archive of the brothers Pulievi, which is kept in the National Library-BIA (fund 183). The preserved copies of letters and commercial notebooks reflect not only the entrepreneurial activity of the brothers Pulievi, but also shed light on various other perspectives of the artisanal production in the Bulgarian lands during the period of 1830s 1860s.
Intriguing is not only the information about the zoning of certain areas and settlements in the production of certain types of items, but also the data about events otherwise briefly mentioned in literature for instance the fire in the carsi (bazaar) in Stara Zagora during the summer of 1853.
Additionally, the archive allows us to gain an appreciation not only of the purely commercial relations between producers and Karlovo contractors in relation to their trade dealings, but also to enrich our knowledge related to the overall entrepreneurial mindset and spirit during the Revival period. Another peculiarity is that the Pulievi brothers abide by postulates of the Commercial Code of Ethics.

Key words: Bulgarian National Revival, merchants, guilds (esnaf), artisanal production, Commercial Code of Ethics

JEL: N93

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Author: Mariana Drumeva

Abstract:

The article discusses the main trends in the activities of Tsvyatko Radoslavovs trading company, established in 1855 in Svishtov till the autumn of 1859, the contacts he had with traders and companies working in the cities situated in central Bulgaria, with Istanbul, and abroad Vienna, Bucharest, Brashov, Zimnicea, Giurgiu, Craiova, Odessa and others. Radoslavov dealt both with commission trading and proprietary trading. Within the range of his exports during that period agricultural products such as rice, aniseed, wax and works of Bulgarian crafts, especially leather and cutlery dominated; and his imports were mainly industrial products, iron, yarn and consumer goods. A balance between profits and losses from recorded transactions has been reviewed, the different commercial practices (establishment of a trade association, the way of keeping the accounts and business correspondence, payment in cash, by bills and bills of exchange) have been described. Attention has been drawn to the difficulties the company faced after the Crimean War (18531856) when Tsvyatko Radoslavov was forced to declare bankruptcy in July 1859. The article traces the negotiations for agreement with his creditors and the conditions under which he managed to recover and continue the activities of the company in the autumn of the same year. A conclusion has been drawn that the bankruptcy was not intentional; it was caused by unfavorable economic conjuncture and the mistakes and weaknesses of Tsvyatko Radoslavov and his associates.

Key words: trading company, Commercial Law, Ottoman Empire, bankruptcy.

JEL: N73

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Author: Nikolay Todorov

Abstract:

The present article aims to review the problem with tax farming in the Ottoman empire in the 70s of XIX century. Recently in the Bulgarian historiography the interest in tax farming and mainly the participation of Bulgarians in these economic operations found a serious place in the researches of Sv. Yaneva and Evgeniya Davidova.
The current researchs target is to complete the overall picture of functioning of this type of fiscal practices on the territory of the Tulcha Sandzhak, which covers the whole Northern Dobrudzha.
The article is based on unpublished Ottoman defter for tax farming of the tithe in Tulcha Sandzhak for the fiscal 1289/1290. (1872/1873), kept in the Oriental department of the National Library. The overall number of tax farmers totals 110 people divided in religious indication as follows: Muslims 75, non-Muslims 35, of which a Jew and four. The total amount of the tithe is 6 129 554, 5 grosh.
The researched defter outlines a significant range of representatives of the local business elite. They are mainly persons with a considerable financial abilities, often occupying or occupied administrative positions. The accumulated funds from the tax farmers allows them to better integrate in the Ottoman managerial system. Often they become in intermediaries between the local society and the government or even take part in the local managerial bodies.
What is notable in the present document is that a significant part of the kefils in specific periods are members of the created after the vilayet reform local administrative councils and judiciaries. Commitment is observed between the authorities and the financial abilities of the tax farmers and their guarantors.
The researched document indicates one local variation of the practical functioning of the system for tax farming and demonstrates a sampling of the local business elite.

Key words: Tax Farmers, Tulcha Sandzhak, kefils, Ottoman Empire

JEL: N00, N09

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Author: Svetla Atanasova

Abstract:

The revival town Lyaskovetz enjoys a privileged status since 1538 to 1810, reaffirmed repeatedly by issued Sultan farms. By the promulgation of reforms in the Ottoman Empire in 1839, the special rights of vakaf settlements Lyaskovetz, Arbanassi, Gorna Oryahovitsa and Dolna Oryahovitsa reviewed and privileges were finally abolished during the reign of Sultan Abdul Azis (1861- 1876). The territorial expansion of Ljaskovec in the XIX century in the east and northeast, following the accession of individual neighbourhoods and villages, as Chertovets and Guiran, the dumbbell strategically favourable location and fertile soils represent some of the key prerequisites for economic affluence of local residents.
The village is within the boundaries of the Tarnovo district and is managed by the district governor. Chertovets neighbourhood came under the tutelage of the military governor. The seat of local government and municipal government are in Konak, situated in the neighbourhood St. Nicholas. In 1880 Lyaskovetz changed its city status.
The economic outlook of Ljaskovec during the Renaissance formed by the developed sectors sericulture, viticulture and horticulture. Very important persons for the economy revival are the local merchants and large landowners Burovi, Uzunovi, Paskovi, Getsovi, Kranzovi, Sekulovi, Giranlievi and Kozlevi.
The business leaders shift their capitals in the purchase of taxes and government concessions. They have large farms and agricultural holdings.
From the middle of the XVIII century until the last decades of the XIX c. are approved capitalist production structures in the settlement. The renaissance merchants create a monopoly in the silk market and organize domestic industries in Lyaskovetz and surrounding villages.
Since the 70s to the late XIX century in retail dealing are the brothers Guguchkovi, Dossey Tsonev, Dimitar Yordanov, Dimitar Obreshkov, Ivan T. Byrzakov, "Mosko Ivanov Praninov and Co", Nikola Boyadzhiev, Pencho Genov, Stamo Milanov Stefan Klatev, Tosho Byrzakov.
With the trade of timber and building materials dealing firms' Dimitar Yor290 danov and son "and Gancho Ivanov. Principal exporters of vegetables are Avram Manolov, Atanas Panayotov, George Iv. Tabakov and Ivan Georgiev Tabakov. Petar Petrov dealing with sewing machines. With sales of tiles deal Yorgo h.Atanasov Kondev and Yordan Yordanov.
Famous traders of manufacturing products rank are Atanas Slavoev, Hadji Vasil, Dimo Parashkov, Ilya Kanev and Co, Yordanov Petkov, Nicolas Tsutsumanov, Bogdan Ivanov Madzhunkov, Marin Yordanov Rashov, Mosko Hr. Rashev, Petar Petkov, Hristo Yordanov, Hristo Syarov. Until the Liberation the factory industry is very rarely used. In the village operate four mills flour, owned by Vasil Strashilova, Dimitar A. Burov and Co and Stephen N. Trifonov.

Key words: Ljaskovec, Renaissance, rafts, trade during, capitalist production structures

JEL: F16

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Author: Petar Dobrev

Abstract:

My paper draws on the large unpublished private archive of the Bulgarian trading family Holevich, with documents stretching from 1834 to the 1950s. Having made their fortune in the town of Kotel during the final decades of Ottoman rule over the Balkans, the family acquired extensive lands in the fertile Dobrudja area near the Black Sea, where they established their chiftliks- large-scale agricultural estates. Soon the Holeviches created a vast commercial network, stretching from Istanbul to Vienna, and from Varna to Marseille.
The paper shows the specific ways in which Kotel and the protoindustrialization there helped merchants like the Holeviches accumulate their capital. With Bulgaria declaring independence from the Empire, Holevichs economic influence quickly transcended into the political field. Members of the family took important positions in the National Assembly, the local administrations and political parties. Successful and powerful in three different countries and under various political regimes, Holevichs case could be representative of other Balkan merchants who accumulated economic and social capital in the Ottoman Empire and then made good use of it in their new national states. The economic upsurge of Kotel ended with the formation of the Bulgarian nation state but the accumulated capital managed to transform itself into other spheres and regions.

Key words: proto-industrialization, Kotel, Balkan merchants, capitalist agriculture, Dobrudja, capital accumulation, political networks, merchant networks, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria

JEL: N94

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Author: Daniela Tsoneva

Abstract:

The scientific research presents 3 major crafts from the National Revival period in Bulgaria. Two of them: furriery and braid-knitting gave birth to the industrialization of Gabrovo after 1878. Smithery was one of the first crafts in Gabrovo and reached its highest development in the 1860s. After the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878 smithery production gradually decreased but was revived again during the second half of 20th centurys first decade.
The Gabrovians Ivan Kolchev Kalpazanov and Totyo Antipov were emblematic for their role in the successful development of braid-knitting and furriery in the National Revival period. The economic experience from this period in Gabrovo was transformed into development of new industry after the year of 1878.
Stoyan Dobrev was a representative of one of the significant cutlers families in Gabrovo. His son Dobri Stoyanov used the family crafts experience and in the 18601870s became one of the most active craftsmen on the cutlery goods market. Despite the market success and the privileges given to Gabrovo cutlers by the Ottoman authorities, those craftsmen were not able to preserve Gabrovo as a center of cutlery. This was caused by the lack of initiative for the industrialization of cutlery and by the unstable political conditions after the April Uprising in 1876. After the Bulgarian Liberation in 1878 the cutlery goods market continued to shrink and in the last decade of 19th century cutlery almost disappeared in the town. The renewal of smithery in Gabrovo in the beginning of the 20th century came due to the activities of the industrialist Ivan Nedkov who developed craft traditions from the National Revival period into a mechanised industry.
Gabrovians managed to use the accumulated production and technical experience from the National Revival period in the new political and economic conditions of the restored Bulgarian state after 1878. Crafts workshops and manufactories in Gabrovo went through a transformation some of them were closed 329 but others were modernized and new productions appeared. In the last decades of 19th century Gabrovo became an industrial center, known as the Bulgarian Manchester.

Key words: industry center, Bulgarian Manchester, furriery, braid-knittin, smithery, cutlery

JEL: N01, N9

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Author: Kristiyan Valchev

Abstract:

In the present work the development of Ruse on the border of two ages, marked by their typical characteristics, is considered. The aftermaths of the Crimean War and the Reforms in the Ottoman Empire are continuously examined. The development of the crafts, building construction and industry is traced. The researched period is divided into three chronological sections. A general conclusion for the development of Ruse in the examined period is offered.

Key words: economic history, human capital, revival

JEL: N01, N83

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Author: Margarita Marinova

Abstract:

This article studies the process of restriction of foreign trade along the Danube River and of the separate port cities and the results thereof. It is part of the general policy of the Bulgarian state after the Liberation for enhancing the trading role and importance of the Black Sea and the land routes. The survey has been based on economic and historical research, statistical sources and analyses of foreign trade and transport policy of the country, and the development of the Danube cities and their districts. The analysis shows that, mainly under the influence of the transport policy, the Danube River whose relative share in the total imports compared to the Black sea and land routes ranked first, and in imports over the period 1886-1895 second, in the period between 1906 and 1910 it was already ranked third in the total imports and total exports.
The reasons why the Danube ports remained major export centres of grains to Northwestern and large areas of Central and Northeastern Bulgaria have been explained. The role of the towns of Vidin, Lom, Oryahovo, Nikopol, Svishtov, Rousse, Tutrakan and Silistra in the import and export trade has been outlined and special attention has been paid to the favoritism of Rousse at the expense of Svishtov. Attention has also been drawn to the indifference of the state towards the proposals of the Rousse Chamber of Commerce for the construction of Danube merchant fleet. The most important critical views of representatives of the Bulgarian economic science on the government policy in the field of railway construction and redirection of exports from the Danube River to the Black Sea have been outlined. Data on how the Bulgarian export of grains on the Danube River managed to overcome the dependency from Romania around the year 1912 have been presented. In conclusion, it has been stated that the reorientation of Bulgarian foreign trade from the Danube River to the Black Sea has been supported by important economic and political arguments. Concurrently, the state has ignored certain conditions that give stability of the foreign trade route on the Danube River and prerequisites for better prospects in future. The state has attempted to 366 model the decline in the trading role of the Danube cities by underestimating major export opportunities of their natural hinterland, which showed "resistance" to such policy.

Key words: The Danube River, Danube cities, foreign trade, relative share of imports and exports, Danube merchant fleet, railway policy, hinterland, grains

JEL: N73

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Author: Emiliya Vacheva

Abstract:

This article traces the development of crafts in the town of Svishtov in the period from the National Liberation to the end of the XIX century. The presented statements are based on archival documentary sources, published statistical data as well as studies that have been done on the issue so far. The reasons for the successful development of some of the traditional crafts of the Bulgarian Revival period and the decline of others have been outlined. The impact of government policy on economic processes occurring in the development of crafts in Svishtov, as well as the measures taken in districts and municipalities, have been described. It has been concluded that as a result of socio-economic changes after the National Liberation, some of the traditional crafts that had flourished during the Bulgarian Revival period, were restructured and adapted to the new market conditions. Despite the strong competition from imported goods, they continued to be practiced till the end of the period (tailoring and fashioning clothes). Another group of crafts, where difficulties occurred even prior to the National Liberation and as a result of the changes, died out (cotton cloth making). Some crafts, owing to the preserved traditions of the past, proved to be viable and continued their struggle for survival (cooperage, furriery, construction of boats and sailing vessels). New crafts appeared in order to meet the changed tastes and demands of the population in the area of clothing and household products (making of chairs, shoemaking). The article summarizes that the overall development of crafts in the town was slow and unstable. The reasons for that were: the increased importation of foreign goods and conservatism of the craftsmen. They did not make any efforts to meet the changed tastes and demands of the population. Many of them "were in decline because of their primitivism." Difficulties also came from the lack of capital for technical modernization of production. Regardless of its predicament, handicraft production continued to occupy an important part of the economic life of Svishtov. At the end of XIX century a considerable part of the population was engaged in handicraft production.

Key words: handicraft manufacture, legislative measures and initiatives, 388 craftsman guilds, manufactured goods, shoemaking workshop, clothes shop, atelier.

JEL: N63

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Author: Dimitar Hristov

Abstract:

Ohrid took a special place among the Bulgarian cities in the past and even now it still has been keeping a part of its Bulgarian character. Ohrids history has been studied from different perspectives. The citys economic history however is less known. The paper presented here makes a brief overview of the Ohrids socio-economic development during the National Revival Age (notably its proper and late phases (1830-1912)) and the following decades of shifting political regimes in the first half of 20th century. The main reviewed topics are: the economic structure of Ohrid in the Revival Age, the exclusively important role of the furriery and the furriers community in the 19th century urban life, the crisis of trades in the end of that century, the use of the Ohrid lakes water resources (fishing, transport, production of Ohrid pearl) in the first half of the 20th c., the rise of the tourist branch in the local economy, and, in conclusion, the economical perspectives in front of the Ohrids citizens.

Key words: Ohrid, Ottoman Empires economy, crafts and trade, furriery, fishing, use of water resources.

JEL: N93

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Author: Ivaylo Nachev

Abstract:

The article analyses the spatial distribution of the industrial enterprises in Sofia in the framework of the overall urban development of the city from the time of the creation of the modern industry until World War II. It seeks to explore the evolution in the spatial distribution of the industry and to outline the factors determining the trends in this aspect. In Sofia there were practically no significant manufacturing enterprises around the time it became Bulgarias capital, but this radically changed within the next two decades, during which were built dozens of new plants. However, this industrial development brought many new challenges to the city, including questions regarding the integration of the factories in the urban system. In addition, the city authorities had to deal with a number of environmental concerns like water and air pollution. First, the article examines several characteristic cases of individual plants with the aim to outline main motives in the decision process regarding the selection of proper locations. The article also deals with certain state regulations and urban plans that tend to direct the process and try to create larger and compacter industrial zones towards the end of the examined period. The first regulation plans paid no special attention to the location of the industry. Gradually the urban planners became aware of the importance of the issue and various ideas were proposed in the second decade of the 20 century, but this question was elaborated in details in the project of German urban planner A. Mueussmann from the late 1930s, which despite its formal abolition in socialist Bulgaria had a significant impact on the capitals urban development.

Key words: Sofia, industrialisation, urban planning, factories spatial distribution.

JEL: R12, R38

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Bakardzhieva, T 1996, The Bulgarian Community in Ruse during the 60s of the 19th c., DIOS, Sofia. (in Bulgarian)
Berov, L 1996a, History of the World: Dates and Events, Otvoreno obshtestvo, Sofia. (in Bulgarian)
Berov, L 1996b, Economic History, 2nd edn, Otvoreno obshtestvo, Sofia. (in Bulgarian)
Paskaleva, V 1986, Central Europe and the lands along the Lower Danube during the 17-19 centuries (Socio-economic aspects), Izdatelstvo na BAN, Sofia. (in Bulgarian)

● :
Ilchev, I & Mitev, P 2003, Touching America (19th - beginning of the 20th century), Fondatsia Hemimont, Sofia. (in Bulgarian)
Dzhaleva-Chonkova, A, Kostov, E, Filipova, M & Harizanova, V 1997, History of the Railways in Bulgaria, BBTU Todor Kableshkov, Sofia. (in Bulgarian)

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● ()/ ():
Eldarov, S (ed.) 2002, The Balkans between War and Peace, 14th - 20th century, Ivray, Sofia. (in Bulgarian)
Kostov, A & Danova, P (eds) 2012, Italy, Bulgaria and the Balkans (1870 - 1919), IK Gutenberg, Sofia. (in Bulgarian)

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Davidova, E 1998, 'The Borothers Hristo and Nikola Tapchileshtovi - Economic and Social Activities during the Bulgarian National Revival Period', PhD Thesis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia. (in Bulgarian)

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Paskaleva, V 1981, 'Russian-Bulgarian trade connections during the 50s - 70s of the 19th c.', in The Bulgarian National Revival and Russia, Izdatelstvo na BAN, Sofia, pp. 392-414. (in Bulgarian)

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Shterionov, Sh 1995, 'The Fishing on Southern Black Sea Coast during the Bulgarian National Revival Period', Bulgarska etnologia, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 49-52.

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(Berov, 1996a)
(Ilchev, & Mitev, 2003, pp. 17-25)
(Dzhaleva-Chonkova, Kostov, Filipova, & Harizanova, 1997, p. 50)
(60 Years, 1939, p. 23)
(Eldarov, 2002, pp. 38-42)
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(Peterson, 2008)
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TNA, FO 78/450, Letter from de Redcliffe to Abbot, 13 April 1858.

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, IV, 19, 19 1883, . 5.
Times, 23, 15 October 1856, p. 1.

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REFERENCES:
:

Correspondence address:                                         Correspondence address:

Name Surname: - Position, academic title               Ivan Roussev - Professor, D.Sc.

Institution:                                                               University of Economics

(Department)                                                            Department of Social Sciences and Humanities

Mailing address:                                                      77, Kniaz Boris I Blvd. 9002 Varna

(Phone number/ fax)                                                 Tel.: (+ 359) 886 866175

Email address:                                                         E-mail: ivroussev@yahoo.com

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