THE URBAN ECONOMY IN THE BULGARIAN LAND TROUGH THE AGES
1. INDUSTRY, PROTOINDUSTRIALIZATION, INDUSTRIALIZATION (on the Issue of the Content of Concepts)
Author: Marko Dimitrov
In this article the author makes an attempt, based on the available scientific literature to determine more precisely the content of such concepts as “Industry”, “Proto-industrialization” and “Industrialization”, that are key to clarifying the processes related to the consequences for the economy of industrial revolution in the XIX century. This aims to give a more accurate assessment of the history of economic development of Bulgaria after the establishment of the third Bulgarian State to 1944, and particularly – the processes in the industrial sector of its economy.
Key words: Industry, Proto-industrialization, history of Industrialization, Industrial revolution, Bulgarian Industrialization
JEL: N01, N10
2. HOW MANY AND WHICH WERE THE FIRST FACTORIES IN THE BULGARIAN LANDS BEFORE THE LIBERATION IN 1878? ATTEMPT OF ANALYSIS RELYING ON THE SOURCES AND THE HISTORIOGRAPHY.
Author: Ivan Roussev
The theme of the early industrialization of the Ottoman Empire, particularly of the Balkans and the Bulgarian lands as part of the Empire until 1878, is still incompletely explored. The problem is not only the lack of reliable historical sources, but also the random and often incorrect use of economic concepts, which is leading to inaccurate interpretation of the available information. The purpose of this study is to clarify through reliance on the sources and historiographical analysis which and how many companies classified as factories existed in the Bulgarian lands until the Liberation (1878).
Key words: factory, the Bulgarian lands, the Ottoman Empire, industrialization
3. THE BULGARIAN ECONOMISTS AND THE IDEAS FOR THE BALKAN AND EUROPEAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION (1878 - 1944).
Author: Pencho Penchev
During the period of the so-called first Bulgarian capitalism (1878–1944) one of the most interesting problems that preoccupies the economists in the country is linked to the perspectives and consequences of the economic and political integration of Bulgaria and the other Balkan or European countries. They approached this issue with a large dose of realism. On the one hand, they are driven by a clear sense of backwardness, limited capacity and resources of the Bulgarian economy, suggesting the inclusion of the country in a larger market, but on the other they are not dramatically affected by the illusions of “civilizational choice” that must be made.
Key words: economic integration, Bulgaria, economists
4. THE QUESTION FOR THE INDUSTRIALIZATION IN BULGARIA (1944-1989).
Author: Lilyana Veleva
The industrialization of Bulgaria, conducted in the period 1944- 1989, is at the center of radical reforms to establish a socialist centrally planned economy. Discussed are the main aspects of this process – starting base, model of reconstruction, forced construction of industry and investment policy of the state, efficiency of production, urbanization and more. In certain stages of industrialization high quantitative results have been achieved, while showing a number of distortions. Some of them are considered and discussed as part of the reasons for the failure of socialism in Bulgaria.
Key words: socialist economy, industrialization, investment policy, socialist factories
JEL: N01, N10
5. GREEKS - OTTOMAN TRADESMAN OF LONG DISTANCES: STATUS AND CULTURAL IDENTITY
Author: Svetlana Ivanova
The object of presentation of the present article is the description as a representative example of the group of Orthodox Greeks – tradesmen of long distances in the Ottoman home trade, especially clearly standing out in 17th – 19th c. in the wide economic zone, covering countries between Europe and the Orient. The reason why the topic attracts attention is also because the tradesman of long distances is a basic figure and a dynamic agent of commerce, namely the Greeks of this professional group seem to have direct connection with the springing up of the Bulgarian tradesman as a leading figure in the society.
Key words: commerce, tradesman of long distances, non-Muslim zimma, inner migrations, perakende, Greek/rum, status of tradesmen of long distances, diaspora
6. ASPECT OF THE URBAN ECONOMY IN THE BULGARIAN LANDS UNDER AND OTTOMAN RULE ACCORDING TO BRITISH DIPLOMATIC DOCUMENTS (1800–1878)
Author: Radoslav Spasov
The аrticle discusses aspects of urban economy in the Bulgarian lands under an Ottoman rule during the period 1800–1878 on such information is received by British diplomatic documents. If at the beginning of the XIX century reportedly mainly for the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula, it just before and after the Crimean War (1853–1856) data refer to most of the territories populated by Bulgarians. In British diplomatic correspondence there is a lot of information about trade relations, payment of taxes and the presence of the Bulgarians as part of the urban elite. The spread of the missions of the Foreign Ministry of Great Britain in Bulgarian lands under an Ottoman rule contribute to the advent of European economic relations in the urban sector and have a catalytic role in the process of modernization.
Key words: Bulgarian, Economic aspects, Urban economy, Great Britain, Bulgarian Revival
7. TRADERS AND POLITICS (1886 – 1889)
Author: Milko Palangurski
There’s a special role and place for the deputies traders in the Bulgarian political corps. On a local level they are the key players in the political structure and political faces on a regional and national level. In the meantime their role is also of business leaders, political leaders on city and county level, whose funding to institutions and political parties provide personal network to create effective political structures and successful management of election campaigns. The strength of the commercial community in a political formation practically ensures not only its existence but it also guarantees a successful political activity. At the end of the nineteenth century they occupy about 1/3 of all political positions in the parties, parliaments, governments and other elected bodies. This enables them to become the main driving force behind the modernization of the country politically, economically and culturally.
Key words: Traders, elections, parliament, executive power, political parties
8. LEGAL DOCUMENTS PRESENTING THE ACTIVITIES OF THE SET OF AGRICULTURAL CASES FROM THE LIBERATION TO THE END OF 19th C.
Author: Rositsa Zlatinska
The text presents and analyzes the legal documents relating to the agricultural cases. There are several documents that refer to the organization and operation of agricultural cases. These are: The statute of agricultural cases from 1878, The rules of agricultural cases from 1889 and a legal document of uppermost importance – The Law on Agricultural crates from 1894, and its amendment from 1897.
The Statute of agricultural cases was released on July 27, 1878. It consists of 53 articles. The Statute of agricultural cases is the first legal document related to the organization, operation and management of the cases after the Liberation.
The second legal document is The rules of agricultural cases. It was released on February 25, 1889. It consists of 59 articles. After the adoption of this document the scope of the activities of the agricultural cases expands significantly.
They start to accept deposits and to lend money not only to farmers, but also to people from different social groups. Several attempts to adopt different laws are made between 1878 and 1894 but they all prove fruitless. The Law of agricultural cases from 1984 is developed by the Minister of Finance I. Geshov. It consists of 34 articles, which affect key points of the organization of the cases.
In order to overcome the existing problems of agricultural cases in 1897 the Parliament votes and adopts a new law of the cases. This law improves the structure, the whole organization and the management of the agricultural cases.
As a result of the adoption of the law from 1894 and its amendment of 1897 the agricultural cases become more organized and start to look like a modern credit organization.
Key words: agricultural cases, agricultural credit, law, legal documents, loan, interest.
JEL: N00, N43, N53
9. FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF THE BULGARIAN ORTODOX CLERGY IN THE PRINCIPALITY OF BULGARIA
Author: Petko Petkov
The report examines the legislation basis and the practical realization of material support of the Bulgarian Orthodox clergy. Shown is the initial state of the problem during the years of operation of the Bulgarian Exarchate as a specific Bulgarian proto-state in the Ottoman Empire (1870–1878). It analyzed in detail the question of the maintenance of the clergy after 1879, when is accepted the Tarnovo Constitution, according to which the Orthodox religion was “dominant” in the Principality of Bulgaria. Tracked the difficulties in developing and adopting the relevant texts in the new Exarchate statute partial application and refusal of the government to fulfill some of its obligations – providing supplemental salary of urban and rural priests that happens only during the reign of Stefan Stambolov (1890–1891).
The review of the maintenance of the Bulgarian Orthodox clergy over a relatively long period confirms the findings and conclusions on the question of the attitude of the Bulgarian state to supposedly “dominant” Orthodox religion and Bulgarian Orthodox Church. As for the senior clergy in the Principality / Kingdom of Bulgaria, the problems of material sustainability are not as sharp, but generally it is insufficient for normal performance of the bishop’s duties. But the unsatisfactory and incomplete resolve the issue of maintenance of the white clergy, and lack of opportunities for higher theological education leads to weak or insufficient motivation to make full and proper performance of his professional duties. Priests are the bridges by which church people (clergy and laity) communicate with each other. They largely not have any theological training nor the material means for a normal existence. So this kind of church activity remained at the level of household ritual common religiosity.
Key words: Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Bulgarian Principality/Kingdom, Orthodox clergy, material maintenance, church legislation
JEL: N33, N34
10. THE SECOND STATE COURT (1910 – 1914) FOR MINISTERIAL"CRIMINAL OFFENSES" IN CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES COMMITTED IN SOFIA MUNICIPALITY.
Author: Evgeni Kostov
The Institute for constitutional Ministerial criminal liability in Bulgaria is based on article 155–159 from the Constitution of the Bulgarian Principality, adopted in 1879. It provides for a specific procedure through which the members of the government to be judged outside of the civil courts. From 1880 to 1923, through this procedure four trials were held. In this case, we focus on the work of the Second State Court (1910 – 1914), in particular – criminal offenses in construction activities committed in Sofia Municipality. The author makes a conclusion different from that of the State prosecution – namely there are no legal grounds for the former minister of public buildings, roads and communications Iv. Halachev to be held accountable.
Key words: ministerial criminal offenses, Sofia municipality
11. ARTISANAL PRODUCTION IN THE BULGARIAN LANDS THROUGH THE EYES OF THE BROTHERS PULIEVI (30s - 60s 19th C.)
Author: Ivaylo Naydenov
Various recent and past studies provide extensive in-depth information about the artisanal production in the Bulgarian lands during the Ottoman period (15–19 c.). The existing literature delves into the distinctive features of the numerous types of crafts, looking into their regional distribution, the specific organization of the artisanal production, but also analyzes the contacts between producers and traders, and touches upon many other related issues. However, further aspects of the artisanal production in the Bulgarian lands during this period are worth to be outlined in order to provide better understanding of the topic.
An excellent opportunity to gain further in-sights into the artisanal production in the Bulgarian lands during the Ottoman period is to explore the archive of the brothers Pulievi, which is kept in the National Library-BIA (fund 183). The preserved copies of letters and commercial notebooks reflect not only the entrepreneurial activity of the brothers Pulievi, but also shed light on various other perspectives of the artisanal production in the Bulgarian lands during the period of 1830s – 1860s.
Intriguing is not only the information about the zoning of certain areas and settlements in the production of certain types of items, but also the data about events otherwise briefly mentioned in literature – for instance the fire in the carsi (bazaar) in Stara Zagora during the summer of 1853.
Additionally, the archive allows us to gain an appreciation not only of the purely commercial relations between producers and Karlovo contractors in relation to their trade dealings, but also to enrich our knowledge related to the overall entrepreneurial mindset and spirit during the Revival period. Another peculiarity is that the Pulievi brothers abide by postulates of the “Commercial Code of Ethics”.
Key words: Bulgarian National Revival, merchants, guilds (esnaf), artisanal production, “Commercial Code of Ethics”
12. THE COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES OF TSVYATKO RADOSLAVOV DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE 1850s.
Author: Mariana Drumeva
The article discusses the main trends in the activities of Tsvyatko Radoslavov’s trading company, established in 1855 in Svishtov till the autumn of 1859, the contacts he had with traders and companies working in the cities situated in central Bulgaria, with Istanbul, and abroad – Vienna, Bucharest, Brashov, Zimnicea, Giurgiu, Craiova, Odessa and others. Radoslavov dealt both with commission trading and proprietary trading. Within the range of his exports during that period agricultural products such as rice, aniseed, wax and works of Bulgarian crafts, especially leather and cutlery dominated; and his imports were mainly industrial products, iron, yarn and consumer goods. A balance between profits and losses from recorded transactions has been reviewed, the different commercial practices (establishment of a trade association, the way of keeping the accounts and business correspondence, payment in cash, by bills and bills of exchange) have been described. Attention has been drawn to the difficulties the company faced after the Crimean War (1853–1856) when Tsvyatko Radoslavov was forced to declare bankruptcy in July 1859. The article traces the negotiations for agreement with his creditors and the conditions under which he managed to recover and continue the activities of the company in the autumn of the same year. A conclusion has been drawn that the bankruptcy was not intentional; it was caused by unfavorable economic conjuncture and the mistakes and weaknesses of Tsvyatko Radoslavov and his associates.
Key words: trading company, Commercial Law, Ottoman Empire, bankruptcy.
13. TAX FARMERS IN TULCHA SANDZHAK IN THE 70s OF THE 19th C.
Author: Nikolay Todorov
The present article aims to review the problem with tax farming in the Ottoman empire in the 70’s of XIX century. Recently in the Bulgarian historiography the interest in tax farming and mainly the participation of Bulgarians in these economic operations found a serious place in the researches of Sv. Yaneva and Evgeniya Davidova.
The current research’s target is to complete the overall picture of functioning of this type of fiscal practices on the territory of the Tulcha Sandzhak, which covers the whole Northern Dobrudzha.
The article is based on unpublished Ottoman defter for tax farming of the tithe in Tulcha Sandzhak for the fiscal 1289/1290. (1872/1873), kept in the Oriental department of the National Library. The overall number of tax farmers totals 110 people divided in religious indication as follows: Muslims – 75, non-Muslims – 35, of which a Jew and four. The total amount of the tithe is 6 129 554, 5 grosh.
The researched defter outlines a significant range of representatives of the local business elite. They are mainly persons with a considerable financial abilities, often occupying or occupied administrative positions. The accumulated funds from the tax farmers allows them to better integrate in the Ottoman managerial system. Often they become in intermediaries between the local society and the government or even take part in the local managerial bodies.
What is notable in the present document is that a significant part of the kefils in specific periods are members of the created after the vilayet reform local administrative councils and judiciaries. Commitment is observed between the authorities and the financial abilities of the tax farmers and their guarantors.
The researched document indicates one local variation of the practical functioning of the system for tax farming and demonstrates a sampling of the local business elite.
Key words: Tax Farmers, Tulcha Sandzhak, kefils, Ottoman Empire
JEL: N00, N09
14. LYASKOVETZ. CRAFTS AND TRADE DURING THE RENAISSANCE.
Author: Svetla Atanasova
The revival town Lyaskovetz enjoys a privileged status since 1538 to 1810, reaffirmed repeatedly by issued Sultan farms. By the promulgation of reforms in the Ottoman Empire in 1839, the special rights of vakaf settlements Lyaskovetz, Arbanassi, Gorna Oryahovitsa and Dolna Oryahovitsa reviewed and privileges were finally abolished during the reign of Sultan Abdul Azis (1861- 1876). The territorial expansion of Ljaskovec in the XIX century in the east and northeast, following the accession of individual neighbourhoods and villages, as Chertovets and Guiran, the dumbbell strategically favourable location and fertile soils represent some of the key prerequisites for economic affluence of local residents.
The village is within the boundaries of the Tarnovo district and is managed by the district governor. Chertovets neighbourhood came under the tutelage of the military governor. The seat of local government and municipal government are in “Konak”, situated in the neighbourhood “St. Nicholas”. In 1880 Lyaskovetz changed its city status.
The economic outlook of Ljaskovec during the Renaissance formed by the developed sectors sericulture, viticulture and horticulture. Very important persons for the economy revival are the local merchants and large landowners Burovi, Uzunovi, Paskovi, Getsovi, Kranzovi, Sekulovi, Giranlievi and Kozlevi.
The business leaders shift their capitals in the purchase of taxes and government concessions. They have large farms and agricultural holdings.
From the middle of the XVIII century until the last decades of the XIX c. are approved capitalist production structures in the settlement. The renaissance merchants create a monopoly in the silk market and organize domestic industries in Lyaskovetz and surrounding villages.
Since the 70s to the late XIX century in retail dealing are the brothers Guguchkovi, Dossey Tsonev, Dimitar Yordanov, Dimitar Obreshkov, Ivan T. Byrzakov, “Mosko Ivanov Praninov and Co”, Nikola Boyadzhiev, Pencho Genov, Stamo Milanov Stefan Klatev, Tosho Byrzakov.
With the trade of timber and building materials dealing firms’ Dimitar Yor290 danov and son “and Gancho Ivanov. Principal exporters of vegetables are Avram Manolov, Atanas Panayotov, George Iv. Tabakov and Ivan Georgiev Tabakov. Petar Petrov dealing with sewing machines. With sales of tiles deal Yorgo h.Atanasov Kondev and Yordan Yordanov.
Famous traders of manufacturing products rank are Atanas Slavoev, Hadji Vasil, Dimo Parashkov, “Ilya Kanev and Co”, “Yordanov Petkov”, Nicolas Tsutsumanov, Bogdan Ivanov Madzhunkov, Marin Yordanov Rashov, Mosko Hr. Rashev, Petar Petkov, Hristo Yordanov, Hristo Syarov. Until the Liberation the factory industry is very rarely used. In the village operate four mills flour, owned by Vasil Strashilova, “Dimitar A. Burov and Co” and Stephen N. Trifonov.
Key words: Ljaskovec, Renaissance, сrafts, trade during, capitalist production structures
15. THE HOLEVICH FAMILY AND THE TOWN OF KOTEL - FROM PROTOINDUSTRIALIZATION TOWARDS CAPITALIST AGRICULTURE
Author: Petar Dobrev
My paper draws on the large unpublished private archive of the Bulgarian trading family Holevich, with documents stretching from 1834 to the 1950s. Having made their fortune in the town of Kotel during the final decades of Ottoman rule over the Balkans, the family acquired extensive lands in the fertile Dobrudja area near the Black Sea, where they established their “chiftliks”- large-scale agricultural estates. Soon the Holeviches created a vast commercial network, stretching from Istanbul to Vienna, and from Varna to Marseille.
The paper shows the specific ways in which Kotel and the protoindustrialization there helped merchants like the Holeviches accumulate their capital. With Bulgaria declaring independence from the Empire, Holevich’s economic influence quickly transcended into the political field. Members of the family took important positions in the National Assembly, the local administrations and political parties. Successful and powerful in three different countries and under various political regimes, Holevich’s case could be representative of other Balkan merchants who accumulated economic and social capital in the Ottoman Empire and then made good use of it in their new national states. The economic upsurge of Kotel ended with the formation of the Bulgarian nation state but the accumulated capital managed to transform itself into other spheres and regions.
Key words: proto-industrialization, Kotel, Balkan merchants, capitalist agriculture, Dobrudja, capital accumulation, political networks, merchant networks, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
16. THE CONTRIBUTION OF GABROVO - FROM THE REVIVAL CRAFTS TO THE INDUSTRY OF NEW TIMES (BASED ON DOCUMENTS IN REGIONAL HISTORICAL MUSEUM - GABROVO)
Author: Daniela Tsoneva
The scientific research presents 3 major crafts from the National Revival period in Bulgaria. Two of them: furriery and braid-knitting – gave birth to the industrialization of Gabrovo after 1878. Smithery was one of the first crafts in Gabrovo and reached its highest development in the 1860s. After the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878 smithery production gradually decreased but was revived again during the second half of 20th century’s first decade.
The Gabrovians Ivan Kolchev Kalpazanov and Totyo Antipov were emblematic for their role in the successful development of braid-knitting and furriery in the National Revival period. The economic experience from this period in Gabrovo was transformed into development of new industry after the year of 1878.
Stoyan Dobrev was a representative of one of the significant cutlers’ families in Gabrovo. His son Dobri Stoyanov used the family crafts’ experience and in the 1860–1870s became one of the most active craftsmen on the cutlery goods market. Despite the market success and the privileges given to Gabrovo cutlers by the Ottoman authorities, those craftsmen were not able to preserve Gabrovo as a center of cutlery. This was caused by the lack of initiative for the industrialization of cutlery and by the unstable political conditions after the April Uprising in 1876. After the Bulgarian Liberation in 1878 the cutlery goods market continued to shrink and in the last decade of 19th century cutlery almost disappeared in the town. The renewal of smithery in Gabrovo in the beginning of the 20th century came due to the activities of the industrialist Ivan Nedkov who developed craft traditions from the National Revival period into a mechanised industry.
Gabrovians managed to use the accumulated production and technical experience from the National Revival period in the new political and economic conditions of the restored Bulgarian state after 1878. Crafts’ workshops and manufactories in Gabrovo went through a transformation – some of them were closed 329 but others were modernized and new productions appeared. In the last decades of 19th century Gabrovo became an industrial center, known as the “Bulgarian Manchester”.
Key words: industry center, Bulgarian Manchester, furriery, braid-knittin, smithery, cutlery
JEL: N01, N9
17. THE NATIONAL IN THE EMPIRE. THE HUMAN CAPITAL AND TNE ECONOMY OF RUSCHUCK ON THE BORDER OF TWO ERAS (1864–1880)
Author: Kristiyan Valchev
In the present work the development of Ruse on the border of two ages, marked by their typical characteristics, is considered. The aftermaths of the Crimean War and the Reforms in the Ottoman Empire are continuously examined. The development of the crafts, building construction and industry is traced. The researched period is divided into three chronological sections. A general conclusion for the development of Ruse in the examined period is offered.
Key words: economic history, human capital, revival
JEL: N01, N83
18. TO THE ISSUE OF CHANGE IN THE ROLE OF THE DANUBE RIVER AND THE DANUBE CITIES IN THE FOREIGN TRADE OF BULGARIA (1878–1912)
Author: Margarita Marinova
This article studies the process of restriction of foreign trade along the Danube River and of the separate port cities and the results thereof. It is part of the general policy of the Bulgarian state after the Liberation for enhancing the trading role and importance of the Black Sea and the land routes. The survey has been based on economic and historical research, statistical sources and analyses of foreign trade and transport policy of the country, and the development of the Danube cities and their districts. The analysis shows that, mainly under the influence of the transport policy, the Danube River whose relative share in the total imports compared to the Black sea and land routes ranked first, and in imports over the period 1886-1895 – second, in the period between 1906 and 1910 it was already ranked third in the total imports and total exports.
The reasons why the Danube ports remained major export centres of grains to Northwestern and large areas of Central and Northeastern Bulgaria have been explained. The role of the towns of Vidin, Lom, Oryahovo, Nikopol, Svishtov, Rousse, Tutrakan and Silistra in the import and export trade has been outlined and special attention has been paid to the favoritism of Rousse at the expense of Svishtov. Attention has also been drawn to the indifference of the state towards the proposals of the Rousse Chamber of Commerce for the construction of Danube merchant fleet. The most important critical views of representatives of the Bulgarian economic science on the government policy in the field of railway construction and redirection of exports from the Danube River to the Black Sea have been outlined. Data on how the Bulgarian export of grains on the Danube River managed to overcome the dependency from Romania around the year 1912 have been presented. In conclusion, it has been stated that the reorientation of Bulgarian foreign trade from the Danube River to the Black Sea has been supported by important economic and political arguments. Concurrently, the state has ignored certain conditions that give stability of the foreign trade route on the Danube River and prerequisites for better prospects in future. The state has attempted to 366 model the decline in the trading role of the Danube cities by underestimating major export opportunities of their natural hinterland, which showed “resistance” to such policy.
Key words: The Danube River, Danube cities, foreign trade, relative share of imports and exports, Danube merchant fleet, railway policy, hinterland, grains
19. DEVELOPMENTS OF CRAFTS IN THE TOWN OF SVISHTOV FROM THE NATIONAL LIBERATION TO THE END OF 19th C.
Author: Emiliya Vacheva
This article traces the development of crafts in the town of Svishtov in the period from the National Liberation to the end of the XIX century. The presented statements are based on archival documentary sources, published statistical data as well as studies that have been done on the issue so far. The reasons for the successful development of some of the traditional crafts of the Bulgarian Revival period and the decline of others have been outlined. The impact of government policy on economic processes occurring in the development of crafts in Svishtov, as well as the measures taken in districts and municipalities, have been described. It has been concluded that as a result of socio-economic changes after the National Liberation, some of the traditional crafts that had flourished during the Bulgarian Revival period, were restructured and adapted to the new market conditions. Despite the strong competition from imported goods, they continued to be practiced till the end of the period (tailoring and fashioning clothes). Another group of crafts, where difficulties occurred even prior to the National Liberation and as a result of the changes, died out (cotton cloth making). Some crafts, owing to the preserved traditions of the past, proved to be viable and continued their struggle for survival (cooperage, furriery, construction of boats and sailing vessels). New crafts appeared in order to meet the changed tastes and demands of the population in the area of clothing and household products (making of chairs, shoemaking). The article summarizes that the overall development of crafts in the town was slow and unstable. The reasons for that were: the increased importation of foreign goods and conservatism of the craftsmen. They did not make any efforts to meet the changed tastes and demands of the population. Many of them “were in decline because of their primitivism.” Difficulties also came from the lack of capital for technical modernization of production. Regardless of its predicament, handicraft production continued to occupy an important part of the economic life of Svishtov. At the end of XIX century a considerable part of the population was engaged in handicraft production.
Key words: handicraft manufacture, legislative measures and initiatives, 388 craftsman guilds, manufactured goods, shoemaking workshop, clothes shop, atelier.
20. URBAN ECONOMY OF THE CITY OF OHRID (19th - 20th C.)
Author: Dimitar Hristov
Ohrid took a special place among the Bulgarian cities in the past and even now it still has been keeping a part of its Bulgarian character. Ohrid’s history has been studied from different perspectives. The city’s economic history however is less known. The paper presented here makes a brief overview of the Ohrid’s socio-economic development during the National Revival Age (notably its proper and late phases (1830-1912)) and the following decades of shifting political regimes in the first half of 20th century. The main reviewed topics are: the economic structure of Ohrid in the Revival Age, the exclusively important role of the furriery and the furriers’ community in the 19th century urban life, the crisis of trades in the end of that century, the use of the Ohrid lake’s water resources (fishing, transport, production of Ohrid pearl) in the first half of the 20th c., the rise of the tourist branch in the local economy, and, in conclusion, the economical perspectives in front of the Ohrid’s citizens.
Key words: Ohrid, Ottoman Empire’s economy, crafts and trade, furriery, fishing, use of water resources.
21. SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE LOCATION OF THE FACTORIES IN SOFIA UNTIL WORLD WAR II
Author: Ivaylo Nachev
The article analyses the spatial distribution of the industrial enterprises in Sofia in the framework of the overall urban development of the city from the time of the creation of the modern industry until World War II. It seeks to explore the evolution in the spatial distribution of the industry and to outline the factors determining the trends in this aspect. In Sofia there were practically no significant manufacturing enterprises around the time it became Bulgaria’s capital, but this radically changed within the next two decades, during which were built dozens of new plants. However, this industrial development brought many new challenges to the city, including questions regarding the integration of the factories in the urban system. In addition, the city authorities had to deal with a number of environmental concerns like water and air pollution. First, the article examines several characteristic cases of individual plants with the aim to outline main motives in the decision process regarding the selection of proper locations. The article also deals with certain state regulations and urban plans that tend to direct the process and try to create larger and compacter industrial zones towards the end of the examined period. The first regulation plans paid no special attention to the location of the industry. Gradually the urban planners became aware of the importance of the issue and various ideas were proposed in the second decade of the 20 century, but this question was elaborated in details in the project of German urban planner A. Mueussmann from the late 1930s, which despite its formal abolition in socialist Bulgaria had a significant impact on the capital’s urban development.
Key words: Sofia, industrialisation, urban planning, factories spatial distribution.
JEL: R12, R38