INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULGARIAN LANDS THROUGH THE AGES
SECTION 1. REGIONAL AND NATIONAL ASPECTS
1. THE COMMERCIAL LAW INSTITUTES DURING THE BULGARIAN NATIONAL REVIVAL PERIOD – BETWEEN THE TRADITIONS AND THE MODERNITY
Author: Ivan Roussev
The paper presents the main commercial law institutes and their manifestation on the Bulgarian market in the second and third quarters of the nineteenth century – commercial companies, commercial courts, bankruptcy. They are regulated by the trade legislation and, in this sense, modernity is enshrined in them. Insofar as the modernity is difficult to break through and difficult to place in the oriental conditions of the region, these institutes acquire a specific local appearance that is subject of the analysis in the article. In addition, there are phenomena that are contrary to the law and public morality: corrupt practices, the use of friendly and ties to provide a favorable outcome of a case, seeking legal information and specialized advice through informal contacts, pressure on the members of the trade court. Several key case studies have been considered in the paper and an attempt has been made to formulate hypotheses on the subject, both on the basis of own studies – already published and current, as well as on the basis of recently published contributions, mainly PhD theses. The present study revises the statement in the historiography that laws are adopted in the Ottoman Empire, but they remain “just on a book”, while reforms are formal and imposed “from above”. This statement is not true about the Commercial Law and the commercial law institutes.
Key words: Bulgarian National Revival Period, commercial law institutes, commercial comapnies, commercial courts, bankruptcy
JEL: N43, N73, N93
2. THE TURNVO CONSTITUTION - OWNERSHIP, FINANCE, ECONOMY
Author: Milko Palangurski
The 1879 Constitution of Turnovo give liberal direction to the economic development of Bulgaria. The constitutional text proclaims equalityof ownership and its inviolability. Citizens are not limited in their right to economic initiative and association. The state regulates taxation and the allocation of budget funds using the modern European practices. The economic backwardness has pushed the country’s political elite to create and speed up the modernization process through a system of economic ministries.
Key words: constitution, economy, finances, right to have own property, state policy
3. CONSTRUCTING A MARKET ALTERNATIVE FOR THE BULGARIAN ECONOMY DURING THE INTERWAR PERIOD
Author: Pencho Penchev
In general, the perspectives for the Bulgarian economic development during the interwar period were dominated by the ideas of dirigisme. Based on published research of Bulgarian economists the author reveals their market oriented ideas, which ere an alternative of the mainstream economic thought. It consists of two basic elements. The first one is – labor-intensive, market-oriented agriculture and joint-stock companies to carry out large-scale initiatives. The second one is an economic policy based on cooperation and support of the private initiative by the state.
Key words: market, Bulgaria Interwar period
JEL: B20, N54
4. THE INSTITUTIONS IN THE DOCUMENTARY HERITAGE OF HRISTO BOTEV
Author: Petko Petkov
The article analyzes Hristo Botev’s understandig and views about the institutions as they are represented in his rich and relatively well preserved documentary heritage. It proceeds from the pre-announced broad understanding of the institutions as “rules of interaction between people” based on official norms – written laws, constitutions, normative acts, administrative regulations and structures, but also informal – beliefs, traditions, customs, culture, level of trust, etc. They are presented his views on the Ottoman Empire, the European and Balkan states, the Bulgarian Exarchate, the municipal self-government.
Key words: Hristo Botev, institutions, state, municipality, Exarchate, companies, railway skepticism, schools, chitalishte, guides
5. CREDIT INSTITUTIONS IN THE BULGARIAN LANDS DURING THE 18th AND 19th CENTURIES. AN ATTEMPT FOR REVIEW
Author: Hristyan Atanasov
The proposed paper offers an overview of the credit institutions functioning during the Bulgarian Revival period. The moral norms about interest and usury, which were determined by the religious worldview, are presented. Credit institutions are divided by religion – Islamic or Orthodox. The Ottoman state credit institutions (the “common benefit” funds and orphan funds) are described. Attention is paid to the famous Ottoman cash waqfs, which also had important activity in the Bulgarian lands. Orthodox credit institutions are also subject to analysis – the municipal funds, the school and church boards funds and so on. Special attention is paid to private credit institutions that were created after the 1840s by Bulgarians and considered the beginning of banking in the Bulgarian lands.
Key words: interest, usury, credit, credit institution, “common benefit” funds, orphan funds, banking
JEL: N23, N25
6. OFFICIAL REGULATIONS OF THE OTTOMAN BERATLI MERCHANTS' ACTIVITY IN THE 1860s. SHARED PRACTICES FROM THE BULGARIAN LANDS
Author: Svetla Atanasova
Through the 1860s, the beratli merchants are rarely mentioned in the historical sources. The category was not officially removed, but according to the new trade law introduced in 1861 their status was almost aligned to the other. The preserved documents (berats) issued by the Ministry of trade demostrate in details the rights and the obligations of many Bulgarian beratli merchants. We have documents connected with Hristo Tapchileshtov, Stefan Karagyozov, h. Pavli Ivanov, Georgi Popsimeonov and Radi Mazretov.
Key words: Ottoman Beratli merchants, Bulgarian lands, Revival period, trade regulations
JEL: N01, N83
7. LAND OWNERSHIP AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN BULGARIA (1878 – 1944)
Author: Marco Dimitrov
In this paper the author considers the idea of large land property as one of the main prerequisites for effective development of agriculture and the basis for its modernization. The purpose is to reveal the action mechanism of one of the obstacles to the consolidation of land ownership in Bulgaria during the period – the Inheritance Act of 1890, as well as the inability of the Bulgarian state to abolish it. The role ot this law is peculiar because the conditions of inheritance created by it have permanent impact on the land ownership in the direction of its periodic fragmentation.
Key words: inheritance, inheritance law, land ownership, economic history, Bulgaria
JEL: N24, N44
8. THE CUSTOMS - CONTINUITY, CHANGE AND IMPACT ON BULGARIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (1878 – 1912)
Author: Aleksandar Shivarov
The establishment of the Principality of Bulgaria in 1878 presents and opportunity for studying institutional change and continuity and the consequences of public choices on economic development. The paper focuses on tariff policy and organisation of customs during three decades until 1912. Initially, Bulgaria adopts the principles of the existing tax system of the Ottoman Empire and follows the trade agreements signet by the Empire with its European partners until the 1890s. Afterwards it concludes independently several rounds of agreements with all major counterparts based on ad valorem tariffs, increasing the rates over time. Bulgarian economic policies shit towards protectionism and support of infant industries around the turn of the century, leading to adoption of specific tariffs in 1906. This development fails to produce competitive industries but ensures higher budget revenues with a growing share of indirect taxes. The drawn-out policy change is acoompanied by unceasing reforms of the customs at organisational level with a lot of energy spent on administrative details. The strategic economic choices made at the beginning of the 20th century reverberate through the development path of Bulgaria for the next seceral decades.
Key words: Tariff policy, Trade Policy, Customs, Institutional change, Continuity
JEL: B17, F13, N73
9. PRODUCTION OF CEREALS IN BULGARIA (1878 – 1912)
Author: Plamen Ivanov
The article deals with the topic of traditional cereal production in Bulgaria in the period after the Liberation until 1912. Emphasis is placed on the factors that determine the state of this most important sector of agriculture, as well as the main trends in it. In this connection, the following issues are addressed: the agricultural population, the land ownership regime, the structure of agricultural production, the development of the grain production areas and others. The main problems on the way of the capitalist change of agriculture in Bulgaria, as well as the state policy for overcoming the backwardness and for agrarian modernization.
Key words: agricultural industry, agriculture in Bulgaria, grain production
10. THE INSTITUTE OF CONSTITUTIONAL MINISTERIAL CRIMINAL LIABILITY IN BULGARIA. THE SECOND STATE COURT (1910 – 1914) – ECONOMIC OFFENSES
Author: Evgeni Kostov
The Institute for constitutional Ministerial criminal liability in Bulgaria is base on articel 155-159 from the Constitution of the Bulgarian Principality, adopted in 1879. It provides for a specific procedure through which the members of the government to be judged outside of the civil courts. From 1880 to 1923, through this procedure four trials were held. In this case, we focus on the work of the Second Sate Court (1910-1914). He explores potential law violations committed by ministers from the popular liberal government of Bulgaria, in the period 1903-1908 years. Later, in 1913 year, the indictment was published. This research study analyzes major crimes that are subject to an indictment. The author of a scientific study comes to the conclusion that some of the allegations are unfounded. In 1914, as a result of political reasons, the decision of the Parliament was made to remove the criminal responsibility of the ministries of administration.
Key words: ministerail criminal offenses, seond state court (1919-1914), economic offenses
11. THE PARLIAMENT, BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND PASSING OF THE LOCAL INDUSTRY ENCOURAGEMENT ACT (1928)
Author: Rumyana Parvanova
In the period from 1894 to 1928 Bulgarian governments passed four acts of encouragement of local industry. The researchers usually have negative attitude to these acts as protectionist measures, which are controversal to free market. The aim of this paper is to show the “kitchen” of passing the 1928 acts. The author reveals the positions of parliamentary parties towards industrial protection in general. Some MPs and business organizations played the role of a lobby for proposal of some perspective productions, but some of them gave their support to the branches, which were in crisis. Against tax concessions there were protest from the political opposition, but also from MPs of the governing party. Only two years after passing the act was revised.
Key words: protectionism, laws of encouragement of development of local industry, positions of parliamentary parties, parliamentary debates
JEL: K23, N14
12. SUPPORT FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN BULGARIA THROUGH THE AGES – SOME ASPECTS
Author: Veneta Hristova
The development of entrepreneurship generates many positive effects for society – it leads to the formation of new economic structures, cotributes to higher employment, accelerates the processes of innovation, increased welfare, supports economic development and competitiveness. That is why the question of how best to support the positive energy of entrepreneurship is at the center of a series of micro and macro measures to help remove barriers to its development and to help create a specific culture of entrepreneurship, initiative and creative search for economic opportunities. This paper examines the measure taken at national level in Bulgaria to support entrepreneurship from the Liberation to the present day, focusing on key points in this direction.
Key words: entrepreneurship, support
JEL: L26, N23, N24
13. MATERIALS ON IN KIND PAYMENTS OF SERVICES ACROSS THE BULGARIAN LANDS. PART I
Author: Miroslav Toshev
This work presents the gatheral primary material on the topic of the matural trade in Bulgarian lands through the second half of 19th and the first decades of 20th century. An attempt is made for some primary conclusions regarding its distinctive features.
I hope that the represented materials can serve for a good basis about further researches as the distant goal is to reveal in maximum details the system of paying in kind services across Bulgarian lands and to be used in the reconstruction of the economic models from the far way past.
Key words: Bulgarian lands: end of the 19th c. – first decades of the 20th c., payments in kind, exchange in kind, services
SECTION 2. SETTLEMENT STUDIES AND INDIVIDUAL ECONOMIC ACTORS
14. THE DERBENDZHI VILLAGES IN KAZA/NAHIYE OF TURNOVO BETWEEN 1515 AND 1613 – 1614.OBSERVATIONS ON THEIR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Since the beginning of the Ottoman rule, the district of Turnovo was a part of provence of Nikopol, which is the heir of the Turnovo kingdom of Shishman’s dinasty. Within the studied period (1515-1614), the number of villages included in the boundaries of Turnovo district was about 180. And the number of derbendzhi villages in the district ranged from 5 to 16 from the beginning of the 16th to the first quarter of the 17th c. The district of Turnovo, located in mountainous areas and crossed by the Yantra River, includes dangeraous and quite difficult areas, which need special security. For this purpose, the Ottoman Empire granted special status to the inhabitans of some villages in the Turnovo district and appointed them as the guardians of passers-by. This practice occures not only in the Bulgarian lands but also in the other Balkan lands during the Ottoman period. The Ottoman tax registers (tahrir defters) represent one of the most important sources of the Balkan settlement history. They provide detailed information on the different categories of population and the villages where they live. Most of them date back to the 16th c. Most registers referring to Turnovo district also date back to the 16th c. In this article the derbendzhi villages in Turnovo district will be studied during the period 1515-1614. The main sources of this article are the unpublished or partially published Ottoman registers of Nikopol provence kept in Bulgarian National Library in Sofia and in Turkish archives in Istanbul and Ankara. The purpose is to identify derbendzhi villages in Turnovo district and to analyze demographic, social and economic changes that have occured in these villages during the studied period.
Key words: Ottoman Empire, Balkans, Nicopol province, Turnovo district, derbendzhis
JEL: N13, N23, N93
15. INFORMATION ABOUT THE CHURCH VAKIFS IN THE 18th CENTURY IN OTTOMAN DOCUMENTS FROM THE FUND "PISKOPOS KALEMI"
Author: Krasimira Mutafovar
The research is based on the yet unpublished Ottoman archive documents from the fund “Piskopos kalemi”, the earliest of which is from 1701 and the latest one is from 1777. In this rich archive fund of the Ottoman Archive in Instanbul at the General Directorate of State Archives in the Republic of Turkey are kept documents from the so called department Piskopos mukataasi kalemi (“The chancellery of the Bishop’s matters”) part of the defterhane called Piskopos halifesi kalemi in the 19th c. It addresses the various issues concerning Christian churches and keeps all documents concerning the Orthodox clergy, the Christian churches and monasteries. The information contained in the Patriarchal pleas (arzuhals) selected for the purpose of the study, compiled by the Patriarchs of Constantinopole Kalinik II, Gavriil III, Jeremiah III, Paisios II, the Serbian Patriarchs Moses and Ioannikos III and the Ohrid Archbishop-Patriarch Joasaph II, concerning the collection of church taxes and fees, provide an opportunity for a research and real interference in the discussed Ottoman studies about the so called church vakifs. The comparative analysis of the available and newly translated sources from the fund “Piskopos kalemi”shows that the Christian vakifs most often turn into church vakifs.
Key words: Orthodox church, religion, Ottoman period, vakifs, church vakifs, Ottoman documents, Piskopos kalemi fund, arzuhal, berat, ferman
JEL: N40, N43, N45
16. THE DIFFERENT ROLES OF TRYAVNA CHORBADZHIS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE FOR THE LOCAL ECONOMY
Author: Gergana Georgieva
The article presents the social and economic development of the village of Tryavna in the middle of the 19th c. and the place of Tryavna’s chorbadzhis in the local economic development. The study aims to draw attention to the profile of the chorbadzhis and their economic abilities, while simultaneously comparing them to the financial and property status of other villages. Sources of various origins and characteristics have been used in the analysis. They were created by the Ottoman authorities or by the local Bulgarian municipality. This allows fuller and more accurate representation of the object of study.
Key words: Tryavna, mountainous economy, local elite, chorbadzhis, temettuat defters
JEL: N53, N93
17. THE PRIESTS AND THEIR PLACE IN THE URBAN ECONOMY IN THE 19th CENTURY (FOLLOWING THE EXAMPLE OF SETTLEMENTS FROM NORTHEASTERN BULGARIANS LANDS)
Author: Nevena Nedelcheva
The report presents the priesthood in two selected urban centers from Northeastern Bulgaria (Hezargard and Eski Dzhuma) and their place in the urban economy in the middle of the 19th century. The study aims to present the priests in a little known plan through their financial status, tax liability and property status. At the same time, issues related to the interaction of priests. In the Orthodox community and their leadership role in it, acting as mediators with authority are analyzed. Thus, the study contributes to a fuller examination of the clergy of these two cities. In addition, it clarifies their position in the local economu and fills many gaps in the portait of Orthodox clergy from the 19th century.
Key words: temmettust defters, priests, urban economy, Orthodox community
JEL: N09, N93
18. "EVEN THOUGH WE LIVE UNDER THE NAZIRIN'S INFLUENCE, THE ÇIFLIK'S OWNER IS PROTECTING US A LOT" - BALCHO NEYKOV AND DOBRUDZHA ÇIFLIK OF Eyüb Pasa
Author: Nikolay Todorov
The article provides new information on the socio-economic development of Northern Dobrudzha in the 19th c. extracted from unpublished Ottoman documents – temettuat defters. Temettuat defters appeared in 1845 as a result of an ambitious survey of the Ottoman central authorities which registered the land, immovable property, incomes and animals of the Ottoman subjects. Those documents provide valuable information for the demographic picture, social, ethic and religious characteristics of the settlements in the Ottoman Empire. Another important source of information for the history of the region is Balco Neykov’s memoirs. The problem of the Ottoman elite in ot was studied before, but the provided new sources give new perspective and support innvative theses. The question of chifliks is also discussed in the paper. These chifliks are owned by representatives of the local elite – Hasan Bey and Murad Bey, who had significant role in the domestic economy.
Key words: temettuat defters, chiflik, income tax, Northern Dobrudzha
JEL: N5, N9
19. THE ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS IN THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY OF PULIEVI BROTHERS (1839 – 1868)
Author: Ivaylo Naydenov
Document relating to the commercial activities of the brothers Hristo, Nikola and Ivan T. Pulievi (1839 – 1868), allow to shed light on the problems that are understimated in Bulgarian historiography. Such an issue is the role of the “institutions”.
In the proposed context, the term “institution” means bonds and relations between people. From this point of view, Douglass North and Avner Greif’s view is particularly relevant, according to which the institutions are a system of rules, beliefs, level of trust. These are the so-called unofficial norms that occupy a significant place in the activity of the entrepreneurs from the period of the Bulgarian National Revival. Merchants in the Ottoman Empire were forced to develop their business in a situation of constant uncertainty, which is why the trust between them and the reputation they enjoyed played an important role in their entrepreneurial affairs. In this regard the mentioned above elements played a crucial role.
On the other hand, in the preserved documents of Pulievi there is brief information about institutions that are based on official norms – written laws, normative acts, administrative structures that will also be analyzed.
Key words: Bulgarian National Revival period, Pulievi, merchants, institutions, entrepreneurship, business ethics
20. ELENA CHORBADZHIS - ECONOMIC CAPABILITIES AND PUBLIC ACTIVITY
Author: Stanimir Dimitrov
This article aims to explore the economic capabilities of Elena chorbadzhis in the 1840s. Unpublished materials from the Ottoman archives in Istanbul were used and, in particular, a temettuat defter (ML. VRD. TMT.d 12752). The creation of the register coincided with the economic rise of Elena. During the period under consideration, Elena became an important economic center in kaza of Turnovo. From the analysis of the document, it is clear that Elenia chorbadzhis and their heirs were rich landowners with serious economic opportunities in a mountain economy. Apart from being directly related to the economic development of the region, they also carry out intensive public activity related to the construction of fountains, bridges, donations to churches and etc.
Key words: Elena, temettuat register, chorbadzhis, financial status
JEL: N33, N93
21. THE BUSINESS CORRESPONDANCE BETWEEN THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE RUSOVICH FAMILY FROM ARBANASSI IN THE PERIOD JANUARY – MART1868
Author: Veselin Goranchev
This publication presents information about the economic activity from the beginning of 1868 of a part of the representatives of the Third Generation of the Rusovich family from Arbanassi – the brothers Konstantin, Cyril and Atanas. The publication is based on nine Greek-language letters: seven by Konstantin Rusovich to Cyril Rusovich and two by Atanas Rusovich to Cyril Rusovich. The presented information testifies that the Russovich brothers, following the economic model of the era, also known by the activity of a number of businessmen from the National Revival, work in a partnership based on family ties. The subject of their business activity and the names of their partners are presented.
Key words: Arbanassi, National Revival, Rusovich, fund 963K, Greek-language documents, business activities, trade
JEL: N73, N93
22. "THE MOST IMPORTANT ENGINES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY" – THE ROLE OF DISTRICT COUNCILS AS AN COUNCILS AS AND INSTITUTION IN BULGARIA (until 1912)
Author: Petar Dobrev
It is a widely shared opinion that local governments had limited power in the new Balkan states at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. While this was also true for Bulgaria, this paper tries to show that holding positions in the local government and especially in the District councils proved to be very beneficial for big landowners in Northeastern Bulgaria prior to the Balkan Wars. The District councils provided powerfull leverage to shape local policies in areas such as agriculture and infrastructure and also helped its members form influential political networks. While Bulgarian government policy focused mainly on industry in that period, local institutions, under the tutelage of the big landowners, served as a channel though which to divert some state funds towards agriculture, especially in areas like Dobrudja where large estates predominated.
Key words: District councils, local government, local institutions, capitalist agriculture, Dobrudja, Varna, capital accumulation, political networks, merchant networks, Bulgaria
23. ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPORTANCE OF THE UNORGANIZED CREDIT IN SVISHTOV (1878 – 1912)
Author: Margarita Marinova
The article discusses the credit activity of the commercial-banker (sarafs) companies and bankers’ houses in Svishtov, which were the holders of the unorganized credit in the period 1878 – 1912. Their principles of action, which shape their institutional characteristics, are outlined. Conclusions were made on the role and importance of this type of credit for the development of urban economy.
Key words: unorganized credit, mortgage loan, money-lending, mobilization of capital
24. SVISHTOV REVIVAL PERIOD MERCHANTS IN THE POST-LIBERATION BULGARIA
Author: Emilia Vacheva
The purpose of this article is to trace the activities of the Revival Revolutionary Svishtov Commercial Companies after the Liberation. The report is based on archival document sources, published statistics, and on existing research on the issue. Their year of founding and the time of existence, their legal form, as well as the main items with which they trade and their contacts with local and foreign companies are clarified.
Key words: trade, manufactured and colonial goods, commercial companies, banktuptcy, economic crisis
25. THE POLICY OF THE BULGARIAN COMMUNIST PARTY FOR MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE IN DOBRUDZHA (1951 – 1956)
Author: Tsvetolin Nedkov
The article reveals the policy of the Bulgarian Communist Party for modernization of agriculture in Dobrudzha from 1951 to 1956. The main goal of this policy was to solve production problem in the country. The study is based on archival documents and available historical literature.
Key words: agriculture, modernization, production problem
26. THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY OF GABRORO AFTER NATIONALIZATION - CONSOLIDATION, STRUCTURING AND RESTRUKTIRINGS g (1947 – 1989)
Author: Ivan Postompirov
This article aims to present the development of Gabrovo textile enterprises after the nationalization of private industry on 23 Dec. 1947. This is done in socialist conditions, conducted economy in Soviet style, which remained until the fall of the totalitarian regime in 1989. After introducing the command and control system all industries are managed centrally, in a hierarchical order. That does not leave almost no possibility for an initiatice of businessmen, lack of a competitive environment, enterprises are lagging behind technologically. The article presents the steps development of Gabrovo textile and institutions who manage it: merging and consolidating former private enterprises in the period 1947-1958, creation of the two textile plants in 1959 and the processes of their structuring and restructuring in the 1960s and 1970s, to the failure of the planned economy after 1989.
Key words: Gabrovo, textile, industry, nationalization, totalitarian regime, institutions
JEL: N14, N94, O250, P25