THE DIVERSITY OF BULGARIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE AGES
1. OF THE ESSENCE AND MEANING OF ECONOMIC HISTORY
Author: Pencho Penchev
The paper discusses the main characteristic features of economic history. The author makes an attempt to highlight the meaning and social importance of research in this field. These problems are placed in the light of the achievements and shortcomings of the economic history in Bulgaria. The author argues that the cliometric studies of economic history, valuable as they are, are not sufficient to reveal the main trends in world economic development. In terms of meaning, economic history research only makes sense if it brings some benefit to society.
Key words: Economic history, theory, history
JEL: N01, B13, B23
2. DIVERSITY IN THE SPREAD OF MODERN ECONOMIC CULTURE AMONG BULGARIANS DURING THE BULGARIAN NATIONAL REVIVAL PERIOD (18th - 19th CENTURIES)
Author: Ivan Roussev
The object of the research of the present article is the tracing out of the diversity in the spreading of the modern economic culture of the Bulgarian nation in the epoch of the Bulgarian National Revival period (18th – 19th CC) – a diversity mainly in respect of geography and time. Both in Europe and on the Balkans the modern economic culture springs up and gives its first visible results at the beginning of the New Time. The Bulgarians are no exception to that process, although it appears with them later in comparison with some of the peoples on the European continent. As with the nations on the Mediterranean and in Western Europe it is the trade among the Bulgarians which is the economic sphere to be the earliest and most notably affected by modernisation. That is why the article deals mainly with the modern trade culture of the Bulgarian National Revival period on the basis of which to a great extent appear and develop the other economic areas of the posr-Renaissance society – the protoindustries and industry, services and credit. An attempt has been made to enlarge the research in that direction as well. The results of the research show that the highest degree in the spreading of the modern economic culture among the Bulgarian society was achieved during the third quarter of the 19th C (50ies – 70ies of the century) in the following centres and regions: among the Bulgarian community in the capital of the Ottoman empire – Istanbul, in the sub-Balkan settlements (Kalofer, Klisura, Sopot, Kazanlak, Koprivshtitsa and others), Central Northern Bulgaria (mainly Gabrovo and Turnovo), the Sliven-Kotel region (Sliven, Kotel, Zheravna, Gradets, Medven), the towns along the Danube (Rouse, Svishtov, Lom, Silistra,Toulcha), in some of the centres of the Bulgarian Diaspora in Wallachia, Moldova and Bessarabia (Bucharest, Krayova, Braila, Galatz, Giurgiu, Yash, Bolgrad, Foc?ani). Other regions are represented only partially on the map of the Bulgarian economic modernisation during the Bulgarian National Revival period with certain separate town centres: South Bulgaria (Stara Zagora and Plovdiv), South-Western Bulgaria (Samokov and Sofia), the north-eastern territories and the Black sea region (Varna, Shumen and Burgas) and there are certain regions which are missing completely from this map: North-Western Bulgaria, Macedonia, the south-eastern territories, a large part of Dobrudzha.
Key words: the modern economic culture, Bulgarian National Revival period (18th – 19th CC), modernisation, the modern trade culture, the protoindustries, industry, services, credit
3. THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BULGARIANS AS SEEN THROUGH THE DOCUMENTARY HERITAGE OF GEORGI ST. RAKOVSKI
Author: Petko Petkov
This article analyzes the understanding of Georgi St. Rakovski on the economic situation and opportunities for economic development of the Bulgarians on the basis of his preserved documentary heritage. His opinion about the geographical location, the demographic potential and the social status of the Bulgarians is shown. His attitude towards the ruling Ottoman government, neighboring states and Great powers is revealed in connection with the economic progress of the Bulgarians.
Key words: Georgi Stoykov Rakovski, economic condition, economic development, demographic nationalism, economic nationalism, Bulgarian trade association
JEL: N01, B10
4. A FINANCIAL READING OF THE "TSARIGRADSKI NEWSPAPER". AN ATTEMPT (1848–1862)
Author: Hristiyan Atanasov
This article aims to present the financial information of the „Tsarigradski newspaper” published for about fifteen years. Hundreds of weekly papers, which contain an extraordinary volume of materials dedicated to finance: tables, reports, analyzes, orders from the Ottoman government, and so on, have been reviewed.
The article does not claim for comprehensiveness. We are not able to present all the materials – they are too many. The cliometric data that can be collected from the newspaper will also not be presented. Here we will adopt a problematic thematic approach and will present only a few of the materials published in the newspaper. They are related to the determination of the value of coins and paper money, the way prices are formed, information for credit institutions, etc. We hope that the article will contribute to increase the interest in the digital editions of the Bulgarian newspapers, which we receive as an inheritance from the Revival period. They are a prime source of historical research and are fully accessible on the Internet – on the website of the National Library “St. St. Cyril and Methodius”.
Key words: documents, sources, financial history, coins, paper money, prices, credit institutions
5. THE MERCHANTS IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL NATIONAL ASSEMBLY FROM 1879. A SOCIO-POLITICAL PORTRAIT.
Author: Milko Palangurski
In 1879, after the Liberation of Bulgaria, the Constituent National Assembly was convened to elaborate the constitution of the country. Among the 230 delegate 97 are tradesman, which makes 42.20% of the assembled. This makes retailers the largest professional group in the constitutional assembly. The traders taking part in the University of National and World Economy are people with a solid education for the time being. It is by no means elitist, but it is at a level that allows them to occupy key positions in the social life of the Bulgarian society – ecclesiastical-national municipalities, church activities, creation and development of educational institutions and their modernization and Europeanization. Their role in creating the Libraries Network, publishing and distributing books and textbooks and maintaining the national newspaper network is enormous. They have gained some political experience in the Ottoman Empire, as logically this happens in the three main spheres – local self-government, which is the result of the reform of the Empire, the struggle for a national church – a movement that engages all intelligent forces and third, through participation, financing, and influencing the revolutionary flow. Without being a driving force in the debates at the Constituent Assembly, they occupy positions that sets the tone for the liberal model of governance imposed for the next seven decades.
Key words: traders, constitution, political experience, local selfgovernment, independent church, revolutionary struggles
6. MATERIALS ON THE BARTER EXCHANGE IN BULGARIAN LANDS
Author: Miroslav Toshev
This work presents the gathered primary material on the topic of the natural trade among Bulgarian lands through the second half of XIX and the first decades of XX century. It’s made a try for some primary conclusions regarding its distinctive features.
I hope that the represented materials can serve for a good basis about further researches as the distant goal is to reveal in maximum detail the system of natural trade among Bulgarian lands and to be used in the reconstruction of the economic models in the far way past.
Key words: Bulgarian lands: end of XIX century; first decades of XX century, trade, natural exchange, exchange in kind
7. FOREIGN TRADE OF BULGARIA DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY: DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTATION
Author: Aleksandar Shivarov
The paper explores the foreign trade of Bulgaria in the years 1900 – 1945. It depicts the development of merchandise trade on the background of the country’s economic growth during the first half of the 20th century. GDP estimates for the whole period enable the evaluation of trade openness and its comparison to that of other European countries. Trade outcomes are assessed in terms of level and growth (the intensive margin), and diversification (extensive margin). The results of the analysis suggest increased dynamism in the Bulgarian economy and its external sector in the period between the two world wars. This newly found resilience enables the economy to recover after World War I and the Great Depression.
Key words: Foreign trade, Trade openness, Trade diversity, Twentieth century
JEL: F14, N73, N74
8. THE ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS AND BULGARIAN FOREIGN TRADE (1919–1939). THESES
Author: Liliana Veleva
In the period between the two world wars most countries started reforms in the system of state-owned economic institutions. After the end of the First World War, the reorganization of the Bulgarian institutions engaged in foreign trade began. In the current article are presented the more important administrative and managerial aspects related to their activities and participation in the overall organization of the foreign trade of Bulgaria in the period 1919-1939.
Key words: international trade, import-export, economic institutions, ministries, the “Food- export” department, Export Institute
JEL: N14, N44
9. THE THIRD STATE COURT (1919–1923) AND THE ACCUSATIONS RELATED TO THE REQUISITIONS OF THE "PLAKALNITSA MINE" DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR
Author: Evgeni Kostov
The article has two main highlights. First of all, the issue of constitutional ministerial criminal responsibility in Bulgaria in the period after the Liberation until the end of the 20s of the twentieth century is discussed. Secondly, the chronology of the requisition of the Plakalnitza Mine during the First World War is reflected and commented in connection to the work of the Third State Court (1919–1923). The author concludes that the Public Prosecution was unfounded and tendentious on the accusation against the former Cabinet Ministers of V. Radoslavov who ruled Bulgaria in the period 1913–1918.
Key words: Third State Court in Bulgaria, Plakalnitza Mine, World War I
JEL: N14, N44
10. THE BULGARIAN AGRICULTURAL BANK IN THE 1912 - 1914 PERIOD
Author: Rositsa Zlatinska
The text presents and analyzes the function and development of the Bulgarian Agricultural Bank in the period of the First and Second Balkan Wars. After an almost eight-year period of peace, the agricultural institution faces the challenge of developing credit activity in a military period. The text examines not only the general credit activities of the bank, but also the changes of the operation of the bank branches during the war period.
An indicator of the state of the Bulgarian Agricultural Bank during the war period (1912–1913) compared to the period preceding the wars are the changes in the total number and amount of the active banking operations. During the wars, the number of active banking operations and their amount experienced some decline. This decline is explained by the changes in the country’s economic life as a result of the two Balkan wars.
A new moment in the activity of the credit institution is the provision of financial support to the refugees coming from the neighboring Balkan countries after the end of the Second Balkan War. The Agricultural Bank lend money to the refugees for food and for the construction and furnishing of their farms.
Key words: Bulgarian Agricultural Bank, agricultural credit, loan, deposits, credit activities
JEL: N00, N23, N24, N43
11. EFFICIENCY OF THE BULGARIAN BANKS IN THE TWENTIES OF LAST CENTURY: HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION BY MEANS OF NONTRADITIONAL METHODS OF EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENT
Author: Nikolay Nenovsky
This paper studies the dynamics of bank efficiency in Bulgaria for two different years in the last century, in particular 1923 and 1928, related to the financial stabilization and financial crisis respectively. In so doing several inter-dependencies has been detected related mainly with the reaction of different type of banks to the financial crisis and financial stabilization. The bank efficiency is measured by using nontraditional method for the measurement of bank efficiency – non-parametric method “Data envelopment analysis” (DEA) and parametric method “stochastic frontier analysis” (SFA). The non-traditional methods, such as DEA and SFA are more sophisticated method than the traditional accounting measurement of bank efficiency, overcoming traditional approach’s disadvantages. The banks are classified on different sub groups in order to capture the reaction of different bank groups in respect to the financial crisis and the financial stabilization. We have collected the date from the official bank balance sheets as well as the profit and loss statements of Bulgarian credit institutions, published in the State Gazette, in order to define the inputs and outputs of banks. These methods have been applied in numerous studies of bank efficiency in a group of countries, but they are not used for the purpose of measuring the efficiency of the Bulgarian banking system for historical data.
Key words: Bulgarian monetary history; bank efficiency; DEA analysis, SFA analysis
JEL: N24; D24; G21
12. THE ROLE OF STATE-OWNED BANKS IN THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF BULGARIA IN THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE TWO WORLD WARS (THE MODEL OF THE BULGARIAN ECONOMY IN THE 30s OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY)
Author: Marco Dimitrov
The main idea of of this text is to show the degree of participation of the major state-owned banks, the Bulgarian National Bank, the Bulgarian Agricultural and Cooperative Bank (until 1934 Bulgarian Agricultural Bank), the Bulgarian Central Cooperative Bank (until 1934) in the economic development of Bulgaria during the interwar period (1919-1939), as well as their role in the formation and implementation of the state economic policy. The aim is to define more precisely the nature and content of this policy and the type of economy that is imposed in the country in the 1930s.
Key words: history of banks, national banks, economic history of Bulgaria, economic of 30s of the twentieth century, managed economy, regulated economy, state and economy, institutions
JEL: N24, N44
13. THE BULGARIAN INCOME TAX ACT OF 1933
Author: Peter Stoyanov
This publication aims to provide a more in-depth critical view of the Bulgarian Income Tax Act of 1933 from the point of the officially declared motives for its amendment and their relation to the legal framework. With the help of the fact-finding analysis, the argument for complete discrepancy between motives and legislation is defended. The old tendency for fiscal fanaticism and lobbyism, accompanied by contradiction, inadequacy and inefficiency is revealed.
Key words: income tax, patent taxation, tax policy
JEL: N23, N24, N43, N44
14. THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF KAZANLAK IN THE 15th AND 16th CENTURIES
Author: Levent Kayapinar
Нахията Казанлък е част от Чирменския санджак. В този санджак са включени казите Чирмен, Йенджеи Загра, Казанлък, Йениджей Чирпан, Хаскъой и Текфурдаг. Чирменският регион е присъединен в рамките на Османската държава заедно с Пловдив и Загра преди 1370г. като последица от завладяването на Одрин. Селището Казанлък не фигурира в архивните документи до 1421г. То се среща за първи път в приложението на вакфието на вакъфа на Саруджаоглу Умур Бег. Самото вакфие е от 1415г., а приложението му е от 1421г. Настоящата статия има за цел да покаже икономическото и демографското развитие на Казанлък от 14125г. до 1594г. на базата на османските архивни източници. В първия регистър, датиращ от 1466г., селище наречено Пазарджик е записано като център на нахия Казанлък. В този период Казанлък има статут на нахия и обхваща двадесет и осем села. Освен това в центъра на Казанлък има джамия, обществена баня, мелница, керавансерей и два магазина, които принадлежат на вакъфа на Умур Бег. В това отношение може да се каже, че вакъфът на Умур Бег е сред основните причини, които превръщат селото Казанлък ш град. В османския регистър, датиращ от 1515г. намираме и бозахане в селището. Също така, трябва да се отбележи, че доходите на това бозахане се ползват от Алпарслан Бей от семейство Джандароглу (което е уседнало в Централен Северен Анадол), който е един от първите управители на Чирменския санджак. Дефтерът от 1530г. показва, че Казанлък е вече град и кадията на града има доход от 35 акчета на ден. Мюсюлманските ханета, чийто брой е 804 (150 ханета живеят ш центъра на казата), са от юрушки произход и живеят ш центъра на казата Казанлък, както и ш двайсетте околни села. Освен това в Казанлък живеят и 360 християнски домакинства. Християнските домакинства се намират в селата Кечидереси, Акбаш и Яссъвиран. В селото Окчулар живеят 37 домакинства рудничари и 38 домакинства от Актав Татарите. Има и 38 домакинства на чалтъкчии (производители на ориз) в селата Елванлъ и Йемишчи. Сред икономическите дейности на селяните от Казанлък се срещат рудничари и чалтъкчии като цяло. От регистъра от 1542г. става ясно, че четири махали (квартали), носещи имената Джами, Мусалла, Ашъклар и Тюркмен запазват статута си и в документа от 1594г. През 1530г. общият доход на Чирменския санджак (който включва Казанлък) е 1 153 370 акчета, като 15% от него (117 406) са предоставени от Казанлък. Тази сума се дължи на производството на пшеница, ечемик, ръж, памук, овощни градини, плодове и ориз, както и на отглеждането на животни като овце, свине и пчеларство. Сред търговските дейности на региона моцем да посочим рударството, производството и продажбата на боза, както и притежаването на мелници и разни магазнини.
Key words: Tahir(Land Survey), Kazanluk, Akcha Kazanluk, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire, Early Ottoman History, Demographic history, Economic History
JEL: N23, N93
15. THE MUKATAA AND THE ILTIZAM SYSTEM IN VIDIN DURING THE 16th CENTURY AS A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE REGION
Author: Ayse Kayapinar
The mukata’as were an important part of the productive and fiscal system of the Ottoman Empire in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Ottoman Empire employed the word mukata’a to designate parts of public revenue units (such as mines, rice paddles, salt marshes, workshops for soap making, candles, fishing grounds, etc.) that belonged to the state treasury and were operated by either government officials, called emins, or by granting concessions to private persons, Muslims or non-Muslims, appointed as amils. The difference between the two forms of management is the following: In the first case, the emin operated for the state and received remuneration, whereas in the second, the amil paid a fixed amount to the treasury in order to take over the iltizam (tax farm). During the first centuries of the Ottoman Empire, the management of the mukata’as in the name of the state through emins was more widespread as a mode of exploitation. But the monetary crisis of the second half of the sixteenth century in the Ottoman Empire obliged the state to look for new sources of income (particularly in cash) in order to provide funds for the state treasure. Therefore, the iltizam system gained importance and the role of the multezim as a cash provider to the state treasury increased.
In this study, the state incomes obtained by mukataa exploitation in the region of Vidin will be examined. The distribution of iltizams, their process of functioning and the contribution to the state treasury by the revenues of the tax farms and the multezims themselves are among the topics to be explored.
Key words: Ottoman Empire, Balkans, Vidin, Mukataa, Iltizam
JEL: N23, N93
16. ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TROYAN REGION DURING THE 16th - 17th CENTURIES: TRADITIONAL LIVELIHOODS AND OUTSIDE INFLUENCES (ACCORDING TO OTTOMAN DOCUMENTS FROM THAT PERIOD)
Author: Krasimira Mutafova
On the basis of unpublished and partly published Ottoman register material from 16th and 17th century the focus of this study is concentrated on the economic development of Troyan and Troyan region during the first centuries under Ottoman rule. The monetary and natural components of the land rent, introduced by various in type and amount taxes in the detailed (mufassal) registers, reveal the whole range of crops and specific livelihoods of the population in settlements of the region. The comparative analysis of this compact information outlines several essential characteristics in their economic development. First of all – the indications of continuity from the time of the medieval Bulgarian state. On the second – the changes that occurred under the influence of the “new” Muslim inhabitants, including in the field of crafts. Third – the influence of local traditions on the economic activity of the Muslim population. The discussed Ottoman documents reveal a quite different economic characteristic of the region from the one imposed in the historiography, and especially in the local history studies, which hardly suggests the development of Troyan as one of the most important centers of craft production during the Revival and Post-liberation period.
Key words: Troyan, Troyan region, economic characteristic, Ottoman period, settlement structure, Ottoman documents, Mufassal defteris
JEL: N53, N93
17. FIRST NOTES ON THE PROFESSIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN POPULATION IN THE TOWN OF SVISHTOV, MID-19th CENTURY
Author: Gergana Georgieva
The article presents new information on the socio-economic development of Svishtov in the 19th c. extracted from unpublished Ottoman documents. In the 19th c. Svishtov developed as one of the main Danubian harbors in the Lower Danube which played crucial role in trade relations between Bulgarian lands, Wallachia and Central Europe. It is characterized by intensive economic progress, based mainly on trade and production of clothes and shoes. The new primary sources reveal details about its socio-economic structure. There was a high level of specialization of merchants – salt trade was one of its basic characteristics. It is also evident the predominance of the small scale merchandise. The land transport was as well presented as water transport. The relatively well-developed economy of Svishtov is presented also by the high annual income declared by the taxpayers.
Key words: Balkan economic development in the 19th century; Danubian harbors, Svishtov, trade between Bulgarian lands and Wallachia, Bulgarian merchants
JEL: N09, N93
18. DEMOGRAPHIC AND PROFESSIONAL STRUCTURE OF RAZGRAD AND POPOVO IN THE 1840s (PRELIMINARY NOTES)
Author: Nevena Nedelcheva
The report presents preliminary remarks on demographic and professional structure of Razgrad and Popovo towns in the middle of the 19th century. It is based on unpublished Ottoman documents – temettuat defters. Those documents provide valuable information for the demographic picture, social, ethnic and religious characteristics of the settlements in the Ottoman Empire. It introduces new unpublished data on the population of the two cities and their social and economic status.
This study focuses on Popovo and Razgrad’s urban development and presents information about their households, their incomes and taxes. The demographic structure of the two cities, the peculiarities of their territorial organization, professional structure and some details of the economic development of the communities in Razgrad and Popovo are also commented. The research presents general information about the economic outlook of these towns, it is focused on the professional profile of their population, the leading industries, and specific occupations. Thus, in the period 1845-1846 Razgrad appears as a center of Muslim and non-Muslim communities, having a population of app. 6000-7000 people. The professional structure of Razgrad is dominated by the agricultural sector. Trade, textiles and logging are also widely held sectors of the town’s economy. The other settlement, Popovo is a village with a population of nearly 300 people and a dominant agricultural appearance.
Key words: temmettuat defters, demographic structure, professional structure, Ottoman Empire, economic
19. OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE OF TULCEA POPULATION IN THE 1840s (ACCORDING TO DATA FROM THE TEMETTUAT REGISTERS)
Author: Nikolay Todorov
The present article aims at examining the occupational structure of the population of Tulcea in the 40s of the 19th century. Unpublished materials from the Ottoman Archives in Istanbul have been used, and in particular the Temettuat Register (Defter) with a signature ML.VRD.TMT.d 12755. The creation of the discussed Temettuat Defter coincides with the period of economic rise of Tulcea and the formation of the Bulgarian community in the city. During the examined period Tulcea established itself as an extremely multiethnic city, a feature of many of the commercial centers through the epoch. From the analysis of the document it is clear that the trade- domestic and foreign was prevailing in the economic development of Tulcea. The highest incomes were from the crafts engaged in that field. Tulcea provided the entrepreneurs of the epoch an untapped market with great opportunities. From its port goods were exported to craftsmen from a very wide region – North-eastern Bulgaria and the eastern parts of The Balkan Mountains.
Key words: Tulcea, Temettuat Register, trade, craftsman
JEL: N00, N09
20. COMMERCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP DURING THE BULGARIAN NATIONAL REVIVAL PERIOD: THA CASE OF PULIEVI BROTHERS (1839 - 1868)
Author: Ivaylo Naydenov
In the first part of my paper, I am going to deal with the concepts of entrepreneurship and particularly with commercial entrepreneurship. In the light of all existing theories, I use the paradigm of Israel Kirzner and Mark Casson adopted by some Greek historians such as Maria-Christina Chatziioannou. According to them, the entrepreneur is an agent who earns a profit, buying cheap commodities and selling them at dear prices.
In the second part, I deal with the entrepreneurial activity of brothers Hristo, Nikola and Ivan Todorovi Pulievi. They established commercial enterprise with their relative Evlogi Georgiev (1839). A few years later this brother – Hristo Georgiev was also enrolled in the work of the trade house “Pulievi-Georgievi”. From the early 1840s onwards Hristo and Nikola T. Pulievi expanded their network in Ottoman Bulgaria. After the Crimean War (1853-1856) Nikola T. Puliev restricted his activities. Much more intriguing is the case with Ivan Todorov Puliev who lived and worked part-time in Galati and Braila. It is also interesting to note Ivan’s mercantile acumen in terms of his idea about the expansion of Pulievi’s network in Serres. Moreover, he wanted to settle down permanently in this town in order to present the mercantile house “Pulievi- Georgievi” in this region. This idea failed but still it is worth noting because it gives us inquisitive clues about Ivan’s business behavior.
In many respects, Pulievi dealt as their Greek colleagues. Of course, there are some important differences. All these things should be discussed because this is the only way of broadening our overall knowledge on the entrepreneurship’s nature.
Key words: Bulgarian National Revival period, Pulievi, theory, entrepreneurship, merchants, mercantile activities
21. THE ECONOMIC LIFE ON THE BULGARIAN LANDS, REFLECTED IN COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES OF TSVYATKO RADOSLAVOV (50-70's OF THE 19th CENTURY)
Author: Mariana Drumeva
The article explores the economic life in the Bulgarian lands with respect to the activity of one of the most important Bulgarian merchants in the third quarter of the 19th century – Tsvyatko Radoslavov. The structure of exports and imports of its companies is a representation of the state of the art of the main branches of the economy – agriculture, livestock breeding, crafts, emerging industry and the needs of the local market. His business practices, the companies and the associations he created, illustrate the professional growth of the Bulgarian trade union and its transformation into a major engine of economic modernization in our land during the period under review.
Key words: Ottoman Empire, Bulgarian Revival, trading company, trading network, Commercial Law
22. THE ORPHAN FUNDS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE - THE TRAN FUND 1872 - 1875
Author: Nadya Manolova-Nikolova
The article aims to publish and analyze a valuable Ottoman document from 1872 to 1875. The document is kept in the State Archives of the town of Pernik. It represents an official register of loans granted by property for orphans. The register is the so-called Orphan’s Fund in the town of Tran (today in Bulgaria), in the document – Iznebol . The creation of orphan’s funds in between 60s and 70s of the ХІХ century was done by the reformers in the Danube Vilayet (Province) of the Ottoman Empire. Their set-up and importance is very poorly studied.
Key words: the Ottoman Empire, Orphan’s Fund, Bulgaria, Bulgarian settlements
JEL: N00, N93
23. THE PRIVATE CREDIT IN SVISHTOV IN THE PERIOD FROM THE LIBERATION TO THE WARS (1912-1918) - AN OVERVIEW
Author: Margarita Marinova
The survey provides an overview of the private credit institutions in Svishtov in the period 1878-1912. The number of commercial and banking houses presented on the credit market, the sources of their capital and their role for the economic development of the city are specified. A brief overview of the history and activities of the two Svishtov Savings Joint Stock Companies is made. The question why no private joint-stock bank is established in Svishtov is explored.
Key words: bank houses, Ist Svistov Savings Joint Stock Company, Svishtov Savings Joint Stock Company “Danube“, short-term credit, mobilization of the capital
24. THE AGRICULTURE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SVISHTOV IN THE PERIOD FROM THE LIBERATION TO THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY
Author: Emilia Vacheva
This article traces agriculture in the Svishtov municipality after the Liberation until the end of the 19th century. The paper is based on reports from official editions of collections, almanacs, a report, published statistical data, as well as on existing research on the issue. The agrarian transformations in Svishtov and the district are taken under consideration, the state policy on agriculture and its application in the municipality is analyzed, and the development of agriculture is outlined.
Key words: agriculture, cereals, livestock breeding, viticulture and wine production, fishing
25. ON SOME PRACTICES REGARDING THE ACTIVITY AND COMMERCIAL CONTACTS OF THE BULGARIAN ROSE OIL TRADING FIRMS (1879 - THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY)
Author: Krasimir Krastev; Momchil Marinov
The last two decades of the 19 century are important and exponential period in the development of the Bulgarian rose producing industry. The main areas of exports for the rose products are formed – The US, England, France, Austria-Hungary, Russia and so on. Major Bulgarian rose trading companies are formed. Based on the numismatic material from the collection of “Iskra” Museum of history in Kazanlak and the accompanying data, the authors are trying to reconstruct the basic tendencies in the development of the Bulgarian rose producing industry in the period.
Key words: economic development, international relations, innovations, trading, international rose trading, gold and silver coins
JEL: E42, N23, N43
26. INTERNATIONAL CONTACTS OF THE BULGARIAN CHIFLIKCHII - THE CASE OF HOLEVICH AND VACCARO
Author: Petar Dobrev
The Holevich family, whose personal archives I am currently researching, were some of the richest and most influential landowners (or chiflikchii) in the region of Dobrudja prior to WWII. The most prominent member of the family was hadji Vasil Holevich, who apart from having a serious political career, was also doing business with one of the most important industrialists in the young Bulgarian state – the Italian K.A. Vaccaro. At the end of the 19th century, they became partners in the sale of agricultural machinery.
My paper researches the complicated business contacts between Holevich and Vaccaro, which started promisingly but ended up with serious losses for the Italian. At a moment when the Bulgarian state budget was dependent of Vaccaro and the European loan, he was negotiating, Holevich was in a position not to answer the Italian’s letters and didn’t seem very concerned with collecting the money that was requested of him. This can show the powerful position local landowning elites had in Dobrudja, which allowed them to have the upper hand even against some of the most influential men in Sofia.
Key words: Balkan merchants, capitalist agriculture, Dobrudja, capital accumulation, political networks, merchant networks, Bulgaria, Italia
27. THE HISTORY OF THE GANCHO S. PARASKOV & SONS BANKING HOUSE AND THE GANCHO S. PARASKOV & G.YORDANOV GENCHEV JOINT-STOCK COMPANY - KILIFAREVO BETWEEN 1876 AND 1923
Author: Svetla Atanasova
Information about the activities of the banking house Gancho S. Paraskov and sons – Kilifarevo (1876-1910) and the joint-stock company “Gancho S. Paraskov and Gencho Yordanov Genchev” – Kilifarevo (1910-1923) are kept in the documentary fund of the company in the State Archives – Veliko Tarnovo. Banking house “Gancho S. Paraskov and sons” was established in Kilifarevo in 1876 and has as its object: opening of current accounts against personal and real guarantees, granting of loans against security with securities, precious objects and mortgage of real estate , collection of insurance policies and records, trade in checks and money transfers only for Bulgaria, exchange of foreign coins. The credit organization accepts short-term and long-term deposits at 5% annual interest. Together to this activity, the company trades with colonial, hardware and dyeing goods, wood, silk cocoons, flours and others. In 1910 the company expanded and restructured its operations. Since 13 October of the same year it has been officially listed in the Commercial Register as a joint stock company “Gancho S. Paraskov and G. Yor. Genchev”- Kilifarevo. The main partners and main shareholders of the economic organization are the sons of Gancho – Georgi and Stancho Paraskovi and their long – time employee Gencho Yordanov Genchev. The main activity of the newly formed company is manufactory trade. It maintains trade relations with numerous domestic suppliers from Turnovo, Svishtov, Rousse, Dryanovo, Varna and Sofia. Parashkovi’s permanent clients include the inhabitants of Kilifarevo and Elena villages. On March 23, 1911, the company was granted a marketing authorization for silkworm grain. The joint stock company is a member of the Union of Bulgarian Joint-Stock Companies in 1920. The economic crisis of 1923 proved to be 457 disastrous for the activity of the Kilifarevo company and it ceased its activity.
Key words: banking house “Gancho S. Paraskov and sons”, joint-stock company “Gancho S. Paraskov and Gencho Yordanov Genchev”, Kilifarevo