SECTION I.REGIONAL AND NATIONAL ASPECTS
1. CRISES MANIFESTATIONS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE DURING THE 18TH C. AND THE CHANGES IN THE CHURCH MUKATA'AS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ILTIZAM SYSTEM
Author: Krasimira Mutafova
As part of the instructions of the Ottoman authority the Patriarchy of Constantinople and the churches in the Balkans – the Patriarchy of Pech and the Archbishop-patriarchy of Ohrid – are directly affected by the new realities in the empire during the 18th c. The domination of the iltizâm system in the Ottoman economy and social life in the 17th and 18th cc. projects significant changes in the Orthodox church both at macro and micro level. At least formally, the state considers the patriarchs and metropolitans as mültezims of legalized with judicial and fiscal immunity mukâta’as. On the basis of different type of documents, issued in the chancellery Piskopos mukâta’ası kalemi („Chancellery of the Bishop mukâta’as“), – patriarchal and metropolitan berâts, sultan’s fermâns, annual income-expenditure statements, the so called surest, suret-i ruznamçe hakani, etc. – the study attempts to trace the changes in the structure of the church mukâta’as, as well as the specific purpose of the delivered piskes in the context of the manifestations of a crisis in the Ottoman Empire during the 18th c.
Key words: Orthodox Church, religion, Ottoman rule, Ottoman documents, Piskopos mukâta’ası kalemi, piskes, patriarchal and metropolitan berâts, fermâns, surets, suret-i ruznamçe hakani.
JEL: N33, N40, N43
2. INSTITUTIONAL-LEGAL CRISES AND COMMERCIAL TRANSFORMATION IN THE 18TH CENTURY: BRITISH LEVANT COMPANY MERCHANTS IN THE BALKANS
Author: U. Serdar Serdaroglu
Since its foundation until the 18th century, the Levant Company passed through many phases. The decisions made by the Company in 1744 and 1753 changed its structure, procedure of membership and method of shipping, giving birth to a new institutional-organizational structure. Before these changes, the company was suffering under the institutional crises in the 18th century. The decision taken in 1744 and 1753 by the Company that liberalized the practice of shipping. As a result of this institutional transformation, the number of the members of the Company increased rapidly in the Balkans. Also, aforementioned institutional transformation caused the international trading enterprises of British merchants especially in the Balkan port cities. This paper has been written with the purpose of contributing to the existing general literature on the “Balkans Trade” while at the same time being informed by recent advances in research base on Ottoman-British archival resources.
Key words: British Levant Company, Aegean Trade, Institutional Changes, Ottoman Empire, Merchants, Selanik (Thessaloniki), Izmir (Smyrna)
JEL: N23, N43, N73, N93
3. CRISES AND OPPORTUNITIES: GREEK AND BULGARIAN BOURGEOISIE AND MUSLIM MERCHANTS IN THE 19TH CENTURY BLACK SEA TRADE
Author: Mustafa Can Guripek
In the 19th century, there were some crises in the Black Sea trade and some opportunities related to these crises. The monopoly power of the Ottoman Empire in the Black Sea trade was shared among other regional actors in the process that began with the 1774 Kucuk Kaynarca Agreement. The Russian Empire’s start to trade in the Black Sea was a crisis for the Muslim Ottoman merchant in the region, but it was an opportunity for Greek sailors. In this crisis environment, the Muslim merchant has turned to the east, namely the Black Sea-Iran transit trade route. As a result of the crisis in the Black Sea, they turned to Iranian trade and seized an opportunity. As a result of the industrualization activities, the integration of the world economy made the Balkan geography important. The dominance of the Greeks in trade created a crisis for Bulgarian merchants. However, the political crises of the Ottoman Empire allowed the Bulgarian bourgeoisie to grow. The Bulgarian bourgeoisie maintained good relations with the Ottoman Empire for many years, and even tax collections on behalf of the Ottomans caused seious tensions between the bourgeoisie and the people. In this article, as in Schumpeter’s crisis theory, it is tried to be explained that the 19th century Black Sea trade creates crises and opportunities.
Key words: Black Sea Trade, Bourgeoisie, Ottoman Empire, Russian Empire, Greeks, Bulgarians, The Chorbadjis
JEL: N83, N90, P12, P45
4. WARTIME CRISIS? THE CRIMEAN WAR (1853-1856) - THE DIFFERENT WAR
Author: Ivan Roussev
Wars have been among the greatest disasters for modern and contemporary human society as they cause significant aconomic, political, demographic, and moral crises. This is generally true regarding the wars that the Bulgarian nation has been involved in during the last few centuries of its existence. One of them, however, may be considered a partial exception to the rule: the Crimean War (1853-1856). Albeit equally accompanied by calamities and damages, by human death and insecurity, the Crimean War exerted a stimulating influence on Bulgarian economy and gave impetus to the process of modernization in Bulgarian society. The present paper is an attempt to outline the actual influence of the Crimean War on Bulgarian economic and social development in the mid-nineteenth century. The study is based on archival evidence from Archives diplomatiques du Ministere des Affaires Etrageres de France and the Bulgarian preiodical press of the 1850s.
Key words: Crimean war, crises, Bulgarian economy, Bulgarian National Revival Period
JEL: N13, N43, A13, E3
5. LYUBEN KARAVELOV AND THE CRISES IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE IN THE 60S AND 70S OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
Author: Petko Petkov
The article examines the attitude of Lyuben Karavelov, one of the most influential figures in Bulgarian emigration, to the crises in the Ottoman Empire in the 60s and 70s of the nineteenth century. His publications in the periodical are analyzed, showing his views on the outcome of the two prolonged crises. The observations and conclusions confirm the latest research on the activities of L.Karavelov, who remains fully faithful to his idea of a Yugoslav federation and dependent on his commitments to influential Russian political and military figures.
Key words: Lyuben Karavelov, the crises in the Ottoman Empire in the 60s and 70s of the nineteenth century, Yugoslav federation
6. THE 1875 ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE PAGES OF THE BULGARIAN REVIVAL PERIOD
Author: Hristiyan Atanasov
The paper aims to present the information in the Bulgarian National Revival Press on the economic crisis of 1875. A problem that has been ignored by Bulgarian scholars so far. Hundreds of issues of Revival newspapers were reviewed, containing a large number of reports, executive orders from the Ottoman authorities, analyzes, and so on. The article cant’t be quite exhaustive, however. The materials are thousands and it is impossible all of them to be presented here. The records are divided into several major thematic groups: the famine in Asia Minor in 1874, the harsh climatic conditions of the winter of 1875, the extinction of farm animals, the uprising in the Ottoman provinces of Herzegovina and Bosnia, and the bankruptcy of the High Porte in the same year.
Key words: Ottoman and Bulgarian history, economic crises, Ottoman bankruptcy, records, sources
7. NEW DATA ON THE FINANCIAL SITUATION OF THE EASTERN RUMELIAN MILITIA
Author: Anton Donchev
The construction and development of any military subdivision is direcly related to the availability of cash. Without arms and supplies, the army cannot exist – a fact proven in the millennial history of humanity. The clarification about the history of Eastern Rumelia and the realization of the union of 1885.
Key words: Eastern Rumelia, budget, militia
8. WHY THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF THE BULGARIAN ECONOMY FAILED DURING THE THIRD BULGARIAN STATE (IS AL. GERSHENKRON RIGHT)?
Author: Marco Dimitrov
The article is focused on the industrial development of Bulgaria from the end of the XIX to the middle of the XX century in the context of Alexander Gershenkron’s theory of industrialization of economically backward countries and the advantages of this. The main idea of the author is interpreting the industrialization of the Bulgarian economy, which is different from the still luxuriously dominant Marxist thesis in histography. This would give a different perspective on the Bulgarian economic history, but not only.
Key words: economic history of Bulgaria, industrialization, industrial policy, economic backwardness in history
JEL: N13, N14, N43, N44, N63, N64
9. CRISES AND POSSIBILITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT: ECONOMIC PRACTICES OF BULGARIAN MERCHANTS FROM THE SECOND HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
Author: Svetla Atanasova
The subject illustrates internal and external factors and causative links, which bring economic instability, bankrupt threat and a need for change in the activity of the Revival period trade companies from the second half of the XIX century. Amongst the main reasons for instability are natural disasters and fires, national liberation movements on the Balkans in 1875 – 1876, the Serbian-Turkish war and the Russian-Turkish war, the economic collapse of the Empire, drop of the Turkish currency, overflow of the inner market with European factory goods and the fall of local manufactured goods, dishonest partnership and others. The consequences of the crisis lead to regulation and development:a change in companies, limitations to the scale of economic activity, transition of capital towards the industry, loaning of real estate and last but not least importantly – the establishment of new economic structures. In the research, cases of the practice of different merchants are analyzed – from Tarnovo – Todor Vasilev, from Svishtov – Dimitar and Grigor Nachovich, from Varna – Yanko Slavchev and others.
Key words: crisis, regulation, development, economic practice, Bulgarian merchants
JEL: N01, N83
10. CEREALS IN BULGARIA DURING THE WAR PERIOD (1912-1918). PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Author: Plamen Ivanov
From ancient times until today cereals have the primary role in the life of nations. They are one of the most sought after and used sources of raw materials and supplies, they remain an integral part of national and international trade. Bulgaria is an agricultural country and its participation in the three wars during the period 1912-1918 is reflected in an extreme increase of problems in the agricultural sector. As in other belligerents, introduces a system of regulation and control of the economy, including cereals. The paper examines and analyzes the implemented measures, their effectiveness, problem areas and the results of the state intervention.
Key words: Cereals, Bulgaria, Balkan Wars, First World War, Military economy, Food crisis
11. THE THIRD STATE COURT (1919-1923) FOR HANDING OVER THE OPERATION OF THE SOFIA - NISH RAILWAY LINE TO THE GERMAN RAILWAY TROOPS DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR
Author: Evgeni Kostov
The Institute for constitutional Ministerial criminal liability in Bulgaria is base on articles 155-159 from the Constitution of the Bulgarian Principality, adopted in 1879. It provides for a specific procedure through which the members of the government to be judged outside of the civil courts. From 1880 to 1923, through this procedure four trials were held. During World War I, The Sofia – Nis line has been handed over for operation to the 7th German Operations Directorate. The author concludes that the contracted Bulgarian-German Agreement is advantageous for the Bulgarian side and that there is no basis for claiming legal responsibility towards the then Minister of Transport V.Koznichki.
Key words: ministerial criminal offenses
12. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF PRICE CONTROLS IN BULGARIA DURING THE INTERWAR PERIOD
Author: Pencho Penchev
The study focuses on the socio-economic consequences of price controls performed by state and municipal authorities in Bulgaria during the Interwar period. It shows that their social welfare intentions often differ from the results achieved, and instead of alleviating the situation of the poor it is getting worse. The mere price fixing does not solve social conflicts and leads to administrative disturbances. From a political point of view, however, the authorities benefitted from price controls because they demonstrated concern for the problems of the majority while the blame for problems falls to greedy merchants and rich speculators.
Key words: price controls, Bulgaria, socio-economic consequences
JEL: N4, N9
13. The Democratic Alliance and the Measures to Fight the Depression (1929-1931)
Author: Rumyana Parvanova
Bulgaria meet the beginning of 1929 year with consolidated finances and banking system due to the stabilization loan of 1928. But in March 1929 the economic situation was changed. Gradually during the second half of the year a crisis of thrust in Bulgarian National Bank and the others private banks was set in, because they confined the credits for commercial and industrial firms. The unions of the traders, industrialists, and craftsmen appealed to the government to establish a new bank for the needs of trade and industrial business. Under the influence of the Depression a group of the governing party – the Democratic Alliance – headed by Al. Tsankov and the finance minister Vl. Mollov made the plans of diminishing of the state administration and the government expenditure, but these were not realized.
Key words: measures against the crisis, confine the credits, diminishing of the state administration, reinforce of the banking system
14. THE WEATH TRADE OF SOUTH DOBRUDZHA (1929-1940)
Author: Tsvetolin Nedkov
In the article based on diverse source material and scientific literature reveals impact of the Great Depression (1929-1933) on the wheat trade of South Dobrudzha, its stagnation development until its return to Bulgaria in autumn of 1940. In the years of the Great Depression the wheat trade in South Dobrudzha developed in regulation, but then the western. After this is stabilized and strengthened, but the pre warning indicators do no reach.
Key words: wheat trade, South Dobrudzha, Great Depression (1929-1933)
15. THE BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS AND ITS ACTIVITY IN THE PERIOD 1930 - 1945
Author: Peter Stoyanov
During the 1930s was established the world’s oldest international financial institution – the Bank for International Settlements. Yet now, 88 years from its creation, both the academic community and the public know so little about it. On the basis of the bank’s dark history, the goal of this paper is to reveal the dangerous and hidden aspects behind the globalization of finance which started during the interwar and war period.
Key words: Bank for International Settlements, Central bank cooperation, trading with the enemy, Nazi gold
JEL: N2, N24, N4, N44
16. MATERIALS ABOUT IN KIND PAYMENTS OF SERVICES ACROSS THE BULGARIAN LANDS. PART II
Author: Miroslav Toshev
This work presents the second part of gathered primary material on the topic of the natural trade among Bulgarian lands through the second half of 19th and the first decades of 20th century. I hope that the represented material can serve for a good basis about further researches as the distant goal is to reveal in maximum details the system of paying in kind services across Bulgarian lands and to be used in the reconstruction of the economic models from the far way past.
Key words: Bulgarian lands: end of the 19th century, first decades of the 20th century, payments in kind, exchange in kind, natural exchange, services
17. THE CRISIS OF THE SOVIET AGRICULTURE 1931-1933
Author: George Todorov
The paper explores the causes of the agrarian crisis in USSR during the period 1931-1933 and the attempts of the central government and the communist part to overcome it. The causes are separated in two different categories – objectively and human dependent. The way the communist rulers in Moscow tried to bypass and overcome the economic crisis represent the faint help, which the venter gives to the regiond of Ukrainte, West Kazakhstan, South Russia and North Caucasus. The paper stays on thesis that despite the huge aggressiveness in the new passed laws and the force used to pass the peasants’ resistance, which two topics are common and heavily interceded in historiography about this periods, the central government actually tried to help the regions through regional subsidies and liberalization of the economic or with all-union instruments as reducing of the grain and bread export.
Key words: Holodomor, agrar politics, Soviet Union, Ukraine
JEL: N54, N55, P26
18. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF THE BULGARIAN INDUSTRY - AN ATTEMPT TO DEAL WITH BUSINESS CRISES
Author: Aneta Deneva
Providing the right conditions for business development and protecting it against possible shocks such as business crises is a key objective and priority of individual governments and countries. A significant role in the solution of this task lies in the sophisticated normative framework and the adopted written rules for the functioning of the business structures. The economic activity is regulated by two types of systems. On the one hand, these are business practices, which are a set of rules, principles and norms directly related to the business of society. On the other hand, it is purely legal regulation, which includes basic laws, regulations, etc., which should be searched in ancient Roman law and which has a leading and decisive place and importance in this regulation. Because of this, and a number of other reasons, changing the “rules of the game” is one of the leading priorities and purpose of each management. In this paper are analyzed only two main periods of the creation and operation of the legal framework of the Bulgarian industry, which are radically opposed by principles, objectives and tasks.
Key words: legal framework, business crises.
JEL: L16, L52, N13, N14
19. BULGARIAN ECONOMY'S DEVELOPMENT DURING THE SOCIALISM AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP - RELATION FOR THE CRISIS THEN AND TODAY
Author: Veneta Hristova
An important factor in stimulating entrepreneurial activity in the economy is the promotion of the creative role that entrepreneurs play in achieving economic and social well-being. The article will focus on the years of totalitarian regime of the Bulgarian economy after 1944 until the end of 1989, during which years the individual’s entrepreneurial spirit is dormant by limiting or banning personal economic activities, encouraging collective erosion of responsibility, breaking the link between ownership and the individual, suggesting that the personal pursuit of profit runs counter to the interests of society. Since 1990, due to a number of economic and political circumstances, the strong entrepreneurial impulse in society has not been fruitfully “used” in order to fully display its positive charge. The reasons for this can be sought in different dimensions: the conflicting role of institutions for promoting small entrepreneurship, the unfavorable regional environment, corruption at different levels, high crime rates, uncertainty in the macroeconomic environment, etc. In the social space, the role of the entrepreneur is again mainly reflected in its negative aspect: mafia of economic structures (eg the drainage of state-owned enterprises through networks of subordinate private companies, the drainage of banks), the work of enterprises without registration, circumvention of payments to the state, etc.
Key words: entrepreneurship, socialism, crisis
20. LEGISLATIVE MODEL FOR OVERCOMING INSOLVENCY IN BULGARIA - CONDITION AND PERSPECTIVES
Author: Margarita Bachvarova
The focus of this research is the legal framework in the Commercial Act that contains the legal means for overcoming the traders’ insolvency in the presence of financial difficulties and the special aspects of the statutory regulations. Based on the historical method, analysis has been made of the first legislative instruments in Bulgaria which reflect the involvement of state in the establishment of a modern legal framework in the area of bankruptcy. The research is focused mainly on the contemporary statutory regulations in an attempt to determine its efficiency when it comes to keep the business operating irrespective of the economic crises and financial shocks. Based on the normative analysis of the current legal framework, separate issues have been outlined connected with its implementation, such as the formal requirements that need to be observed when suggesting the plan for the recovery of the enterprise, as well the lack of criminal provisions engaging the responsibility of the liquidator in case of illegal activities and damage of the debtor’s property. It also states the measures in accordance with the resolution of the European Parliament of 2019 for the optimization of the statutory regulations and the judicial procedures for prevention of insolvency, which may be also instrumental in the improvement of our existing commercial law.
Key words: insolvency, liquidation, recovery, agreement
JEL: K15, K22
SECTION II. SETTLEMENT STUDIES AND INDIVIDUAL ECONOMIC ACTORS
21. MONETARY CIRCULATION IN DUROSTORUM AS A REFLECTION OF THE CRISIS IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE (294-498)
Author: Svetlana Gancheva
Emperor Diocletian (284 – 305) started a number of reforms that led to a completely new stage in the development of the Roman Empire. The period of 294-498, subject of the study, is characterized by conflicts for the power, with years of development, followed by economic instability and barbaric threats, all of which affect commodity-money relations, the market and circulation processes to one degree or another. As a major feature of the dynamics of circulation is used the coin / year ratio, who express the rate of receipt of the coins. It is accepted, that the comparison of values for each period objectively reflects fluctuations in the local money market, which are due to military-political and economic reasons. Based on the monetary circulation in Durostorum, one of the most important centers in the northern border zone of the empire, the development of the city during late antiquity is traced.
Key words: Durostorum, Monetary Circulation, Crisis, Roman Empire
JEL: E4, E5, N43, N93
22. UNREST IN NORTHERN BULGARIA. THE STRUGGLE FOR SUPREMACY BETWEEN TRASTENIKLIOGLU AND YILIKOGLU (1800-1806)
Author: Ayse Kayapinar, Levent Kayapinar
At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, Northern Bulgaria became a scene of riots caused by the Ottoman Ayans. Osman Pazvantoglu, Trastenikoglu Ismail, and Yilikoglu Suleyman are some of them. The acute quarrel between Trastenikoglu and Yilikoglu covers the period from 1800 to 1806. The number of studies conducted on this topic in both Turkey and Bulgaria is quite small. The Presidential Archive contains nearly 200 documents on the Trastenikoglu and Yilikoglu affairs, with a large part containing information about the quarrel between the two Ayans themselves. After being appointed ayan of Ruse, Trastenikoglu began to operate with the center of Ruse, taking over the lands around Ruse and Tarnovo. Taking advantage of Napoleon’s Egyptian march, which forced the Ottoman authorities to deal closely, Trastenikoglu succeeded in extending his power to include in his lands the lands of Svishtov, Razgrad, Omurtag, Shumen, Provadia, Varna, Dobrich, Sliven, Stara Zagora. Almost the entire Silistra sandzhak and the entire Black Sea coast from Constantsa to Midia was under his control. At the same time, he manages to limit the possessions of his rival Yilikoglu, forcing him to settle only with Silistra and Tutrakan. Yilikoglu himself was Delianorman’s Ayan at the end of the 18th century and was later appointed Silistra’s mutessellim. It is believed that at the beginning of the 19th century he was the second big ayan in northern Bulgaria after Trastenikoglu. The earliest information given by the Ottoman documents about Yilikoglu’s atrocities and rebellions dates from 1897/98. The present study aims to investigate the quarrel and rivalry between Trastenikoglu and Yilikoglu based on published and unpublished Ottoman documents from the Istanbul Archive. Particular attention will be paid to the social and economic impact of this struggle on the population in Northern Bulgaria.
Key words: Northeast Bulgaria, ayan, Silistra, Ruse, Trastenikoglu, Yilikoglu
JEL: N13, N23, N43
23. ELENA AND THE REGION OF ELENA DURING THE KIRCALIS TIMES
Author: Stanimir Dimitrov
One of the most emblematic periods in Bulgarian history is related to the Kardzhalis time. It is a time of anarchy and battles for influence in the provinces. A historical source known as the Elena Chronicle synthesizes into one the everyday life and the political situation in this period of turmoil. On the basis of this chronicle, we will try to look into the issues of economic, social and cultural development during the Kardzhalis period, covering the period between 1750s and 1820s in the Balkan history.
Key words: kardzhalis, Elena chronicle, chorbadzhis
JEL: N33, N93
24. CRISES AND OPPORTUNITIES: DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULGARIAN LANDS (FOLLOWING THE EXAMPLE OF TRYAVNA REGION)
Author: Gergana Georgieva
Based on case studies from the territory of kaza of Tarnovo, the correlation “crisis – opportunities” in economic development is being explored. In the nineteenth century, a high demographic growth of the population was observed in the Bulgarian lands, followed by a shortage of land. The uneven distribution causes seasonal and permanent labor migrations of the mountainous population from Tryavna and Gabrovo to certain regions – the Northeastern Bulgarian lands, Dobrudzha and the Danube cities. There is also a specialization of the mountain population in activities that were practiced outside the villages. This is how revenue sources were sought in other parts of the Balkans. Comparison of the size of the land conquered by each household shows that the examples considered in Tarnovo differ significantly from other regions in today’s Bulgarian lands. Economic development in the nineteenth century was definitely based on many case studies that were very different from one another.
Key words: kaza of Tarnovo, Tryavna, demographic growth, shortage of land, seasonal labor migrations
JEL: N33, N53, N63, N93
25. TRADE IN TIMES OF CRISIS - RAZGRAD IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
Author: Nevena Nedelcheva
The study presents the socio-economic development of Razgrad in the first half of the 19th century. Emphasis is placed on the economic and political changes in Ottoman society, the robbery and ayan anarchy in the region. New unpublished data on traders in the city and their social and economic status have being introduced. The focus of the study is on people engaged in commercial activity in Razgrad. The text provides information about their households, incomes and taxes. The economic structure of the merchants, the peculiarities of their territorial organization, their confessional structure and some details of the economic development of this community in Razgrad are discussed.
Key words: merchants, crisis, Razgrad, sedition, trade, temettuat defters
JEL: N33, N73
26. WARS AND REFORMS IN THE OTTOMAN PERIPHERY: AGRARIAN RELATIONS IN DOBRUZHA DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
Author: Nikolay Todorov
The article provides new information on the socio-economic development of Northern Dobrudzha in the 19th c. extracted from unpublished Ottoman documents-temettuat defters. Those documents provide valuable information for the demographic picture, social, ethnic and religious characteristics of the settlements in the Ottoman Empire. Another important source of informationfor the history of the region is Balcho Neykov’s memoirs. The problem of the Ottoman agrarian policy in Northern Dobrudzha and the role of the local Ottoman elite has not been studied before, but the provided new sources give new perspective and support innovative theses.
Key words: temettuat defters, ciflik, income tax, Northern Dobrudzha
JEL: N5, N9
27. ASPECTS OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS IN THE BULGARIAN LANDS DURING THE 1850S AND 1860S ACCORDING TO THE DATA FROM THE ARCHIVE OF THE KRASTICH BROTHERS, MERCHANTS FROM THE TOWN OF SVISHTOV
Author: Ivaylo Naydenov
The proposed paper is based on the mercantile letters sent from and to Dimiter, Petar and Aleko Krastich from the town of Svishtov during the 1850-s and 1860-s. The main aim is to reveal important details related to the economic crisis in Ottoman Bulgaria on the eve, and especially during and after the Crimean War (1853-1856). On the other hand, it is interesting to reveal the measures/strategies of the Bulgarian entrepreneurs (in particular Krastich brothers) to overcome the negative tendencies in the economic life of the Ottoman Empire. Such case-studies may give us additional clues about the essence of entrepreneurship during the Bulgarian National Revival period.
Key words: Bulgarian National Revival period, Svishtov, economic crisis, Krastich brothers, entrepreneurial activities
JEL: 73, 83, 93
28. THE EXPORTS OF GRAIN FOODS FROM SVISHTOV IN THE CONTEXT OF THE "LONG DEPRESSION" 1873-1896
Author: Margarita Marinova
This article reviews the export of grain foods from the most important Bulgarian export center of the Danube River – Svishtov. The influence of domestic factors and the depression of 1873-1896 on the prices of cereals are taken into account in the analysis of the exports dynamics. The main finding is the that strategies to deal with it were successful in the short term, but in the long term they slow down the capital accumulation and modernization of agriculture.
Key words: Svishtov, “long depression”, grain foods, exports, capital accumulation, modernization, agriculture.
29. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOWN OF SVISHTOV DURING THE CRISIS OF 1897-1902
Author: Emilia Vacheva
In this report, based on existing estimates in the historical science of the economic and financial crisis of 1897-1902, an attempt is made to trace its impact on Svishtov’s economic development. At the same time, the influence of other factors, which operate during these years, which have a strong negative impact on the state of the various sectors of the urban economy, is also monitored. The dangers to the future development facing local businesspeople are also revealed, and the question of how aware they are and how they respond to the challenges is sought.
Key words: economic and financial crisis 1897–1902, trade, crafts, industry, imports, exports, cereals
30. THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN GABROVO AFTER 9TH OF SEPTEMBER 1944 - FROM "PATRIOTIC INDUSTRIALS" TO "FORMER PEOPLE" (1944-1947)
Author: Ivan Postompirov
The coup on 9 September 1944 marked the beginning of radical political, economic and social changes in Bulgarian society. The reorientation to another socio-economic order puts entrepreneurial conditions as a potential threat to theFatherland Front, leading to a series of measures to curb and eradicate the private sector in the economy. In accordance with this policy, during the period 1944-1947,unprecedented political, judicial, administrative and economic pressure was exertedon private initiative representatives in the industry.On 23 December 1947 225 enterprises in Gabrovo and its environs were nationalized- textile, knitwear, leather, and more. This affects about 360 families, whowere deprived not only of industrial enterprises as owners and shareholders, but alsoof almost everything they own. After the establishment of totalitarian rule at the end of 1947 and thenationalization carried out, the industrialists were placed in the category of “former people” then introduced by the regime. This group of people, along with their heirs, weredeclared “one of the most vicious enemies of the people’s power”, the main classenemy of the Communist Party and subjected to persecution by the BCP’s repressive apparatus until the end of the regime.
Key words: Gabrovo, industrialists, Communist Party, nationalization, totalitarian regime, “former people”
JEL: N14, N94, O25, P21, P25
31. THE FATHERLAND FRONT AND THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIOCESE OF STARA ZAGORA, 1944-1956
Author: Nikolay Atanasov
The objective of this study is to research the economic changes in the development of Stara Zagora diocese, in result of Fatherland front’s internal politics. The specific tasks are connected to tracking the agrarian politics, alienation of church property and changes in Constitution, which impede the economic initiatives of the Bulgarian Orthodox church and in particular Stara Zagora metropolis. The emphasis is placed on the issue of landing the parochial churches, the opportunities to profit of their adjoining properties and the influence of the fatherland front’s power on the overall financial state of Stara Zagora diocese. The questions which answer is to be searched are connected to the issue if the economic activity of churches and monasteries in the diocese is changed significantly and if some new sources of capitals rise, which fulfill the parish funds related to the maintenance and improvement of the religious and church buildings. As a key point in Stara Zagora diocese financial status is cited 1936, when a fund was found which is replenished with the diocese churches and monasteries’ budget surpluses. It is this initiative that underlies a number of projects created and realized under the leadership of Metropolitan Clement.
Key words: The Fatherland Front, Diocese of Stara Zagora, agricultural policy, monastery economy
JEL: Z12, R11