SECTION I.REGIONAL AND NATIONAL ASPECTS
1. Brokers and Market Microstructures in Black Sea Grain Trade. Preliminary Observations from Varna (Mid-19th – Early 20th Century)
Author: Andreas LYBERATOS
The paper explores the role of intermediaries and market microstructures in Black Sea Grain Trade through the example of the case of Varna and the wider region of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. It focuses particularly on the transition from the late Ottoman, largely unregulated, regional grain markets to the period of autonomous Bulgaria (1878-1908), when international and domestic, economic and social pressures invited the Bulgarian authorities to intervene in local economies and try to regulate the grain markets and the sales of grain from the hinterland to the port-cities. The case of Varna shows that these efforts for institutional change corresponded to – and were largely provoked in the framework of – struggles for control of the processes of agricultural surplus extraction in the hinterland of the port outlets, struggles, which had a discernible ethnic dimension.
Key words: Grain Trade, Brokers, Market Microstructures, Black Sea Grain Trade, Bulgarian Economy, Greek Trade Diaspora
JEL: N 73, N 23 & N 93
2. Trade and Integration Processes in Medieval Livonia in the 13th Century. General Trends and Historical Parallels
Author: U. Serdar Serdaroglu
Abstract: Ivelin IVANOV
The article dwells on the role that trade played in the annexation of land along the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea after a series of crusades and mass Christianization of local tribes during the late 12th and early 13th c. The author analyzes the development of urban life and communications in Livonia, emphasizing the crucial role that commercial activity and the development of trade routes played in the integration of these lands and population into the Christian European world. Afterwards, the author takes a comparative research approach by drawing parallels between the Mediterranean area and the Black Sea basin during the 13th c. It is stressed that, unlike the merchants of the Hanseatic League, who established a solid cartel, which allowed them to monopolize trade in the Baltic Sea, the Italian merchants could not afford such a course of action. Also, the article focuses on the significance of winter routes along the frozen rivers and lakes in Livonia in comparison to Southern and Southeastern Europe. In conclusion, it is stated that the commercial activity in Livonian lands during the 13th c. can be considered in the context of integration processes but it cannot be considered the only and primary way to integration. For instance, based on the comparison with Genoese trade in the Mediterranean Sea, the Back Sea and the Sea of Azov a conclusion can be drawn that the longer routes of the Genoese involved more risk factors. In this aspect, Livonia was in control of relatively shorter and more easily accessible routes, with summer and winter options. This contributed to the flourishing of trade in that region as well as the fostering of international and domestic integration over the following centuries.
Key words: medieval Livonia, medieval Hansa, medieval trade
JEL: N10, N13
3.Beratlis – the Traders of the Sultan
Author: Gergana GEORGIEVA, Nikolay TODOROV
In the late 18th century the Ottoman Empire almost completely lost control of its import and export trade, which were run mainly by foreign merchants. Therefore, a large part of Ottoman traders accepted the status of protégés of those mustemins and became foreign citizens. In early 19th century the Ottoman authorities took some steps in order to restore the balance. They created two special categories of Ottoman merchants – avrupa tuccars (non-Muslims) and hayriye tuccars (Muslims), also known as beratlis, because of the special certificate (berat) they received from the authorities. The beratlis had the right to trade on the international market and to organize the international trade of the Empire. Beratlis were distinguished by a number of privileges they received from the Ottoman authorities, by the considerable capital they possessed, and by the networks of contacts and connections in the Ottoman Empire and abroad that they built.
The article presents the category of non-Muslim beratlis, based on data from two Ottoman defters stored in the Ottoman archive in Istanbul. Some analyses were made based on the names of the beratlis, their place of residence, the year of the beginning of their activity, and the names of their assistants. We were able to reconstruct the ethnic and religious structure of the group; geographical distribution of the beratlis and their assistants; their networks and connections. Special emphasis in the presented examples is put on Bulgarian lands and some figures of the
Bulgarian Revival registered also as beratlis.
Key words: beratlis, Avrupa tuccars, Ottoman merchants, non-Muslim merchants, Ottoman Empire, international trade, 19th century
JEL: N13, N15, N73, N75
4. Authorities, Markets and Society in the Documentary Heritage of Vasil Levski
Author: Petko St. PETKOV
Based on the preserved documentary heritage of Vasil Levski, this paper examines his understanding of authorities, markets and society in both the Ottoman Empire and Europe. The study is based on the latest and most precise edition of the historical documents, the author of which is, or is supposed to be, the Apostle. The conclusions are compliant and based on the existing significant volume of historical literature about Levski. Without claiming to be a discovery, the author’s desire is to shed light, as far as possible, on the basis of the Apostle’s proven documentary heritage, on his attitude to the issue under discussion – authorities, markets and society. The documents show a strong emphasis on the issue of raising sufficient funds, which occupied Levski’s attention. The money was collected on a voluntary basis, but also forcibly, in order to provide the necessary weapons for the future Bulgarian uprising. In this sense, it is fair to emphasize once again the proverbial honesty and high degree of responsibility shown by the Apostle. Due to the lack of a permanent financial institution, he periodically reports the income, which received, and the expenses he made. The preserved, albeit incomplete, documents show no financial abuses. Moreover, the documents testify about the strict control performed by Levski over the collecting and reporting of funds by other members of the organization.
Key words: Vasil Levski, Internal Revolutionary Organization, financial resources, revolutionary Bulgarian proto-state
5. National Market before the National State: Was There a Bulgarian National Market before the Liberation of 1878?
Author: Ivan ROUSSEV
The article presents arguments in support of the claim that there was a process of integration on the Bulgarian national market even before the Liberation of 1878 and that this process was more and more noticeable in the 1840s, 1850s, 1860s, and 1870s. The research methodology is based on data from the business history of the Bulgarian Revival, including my own explorations on the emergence of commercial companies as a manifestation of commercial modernity in the Bulgarian economic area during the era as well as on the trade networks established by them. The two largest companies, “Evlogiy and Hristo Georgievi” and “Hristo P. Tapchileshtov”, stand out as de facto legitimizers of the Bulgarian national market in the 1850s, 1860s, and 1870s. They represent two important Bulgarian national economic institutions, a state before the state in the economic sphere. Other larger or not so large commercial companies and the trade networks established by them also contributed to the process of integration of the Bulgarian national market: “ Robevi Brothers”, “Geshovi Brothers”, “Komsievi Brothers”, “Karaminkovi Brothers”, “Papazoglu Brothers”, “N. Minchoolu & E. Selveli and friends ”,“Stancho Arnaudov and son”,“Georgi Hadjidraganov”, “The Commercial Company in Kotel” and others. The article provides summary information about these companies, about their trade networks in the Bulgarian lands and abroad, about the movements of their capital, etc.
The article compares the similar national processes in the economic and political development of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century. According to a study published in 2012 (Schulze & Wolf, 2012), in late nineteenth-century Austria-Hungary there was an asymmetric intra-imperial integration, which led to the emergence of national markets within the various ethnolinguistic communities of the country. The same process took place in the Ottoman Empire earlier, already in the first half and the middle of the same century, under specific conditions facilitating the integration of separate national markets, including the formation of the Bulgarian market. In the third quarter of the nineteenth century, the Bulgarian Revival elite – economic, cultural, and political – gradually developed the idea of a Bulgarian national market and initiated some original projects within this market.
Another approach in studying the topic is also possible – tracking and comparing the movement of prices of major types of goods in smaller or larger areas of the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, including the Bulgarian ethnic territory during this period. There is no doubt that serious future efforts on the part of a wider circle of researchers are needed, but this cannot happen if the discussion is not opened, if the topic of the emergence of the Bulgarian national market has not been drawn to attention. This article aims to provoke the interest of researchers on the topic.
Key words: Bulgarian national market, Bulgarian National Revival Period, commercial companies, trade networks, movement of prices
JEL: N13, N23, N73, N93
6. On the Metric System in the Ottoman Laws. Market Regulations and Control
Author: Svetla ATANASOVA
In the 19th c., the Ottoman state ushered in the metric system. The study researches the Law of the new measurements, kilograms and weights for longitude, volume and weight which was admitted and published on the 14th of September, 1869 by a Regional Vizier’s order from the 26th of October, 1869 and a Regulation about the conversion of the new weights and measurements from the 4th of May 1870. The biggest part of the texts was taken from the French trade law. The original decisions were a few and they were interpreted according to the specific conditions and religious procedures in the Empire. The law-makers envisaged that transition from the old to the new measurements should happen slowly and at certain stages. The state council recommended an intermediate period for adaptation of traders and servants from the local administrations from the 1st of March, 1871 until 1st of March 1874. The Regulation for viewing and comparison of the new measurements is clarifying the rules and duties of the civil servants in connection to these measurements; it is also giving directions to the traders and the trade assistants how to convert to the new measurements, as well as fixing the methods for tasting and control over the local markets. There are also penalties, taxes and fees envisaged in this Regulation and tables for conversion.
The real work with the metric system bore some complications for the traders, in the form of losses, frauds and speculations. The revival-period newspapers announced some news about the difficulties while working with the new conversion tables and the misinterpretation of Turkish and French definitions. All these problems led to the return of the old order during the rule of sultan Abdul Hamid II. The metric system was admitted in Turkey on the 1st of January, 1934. In Principality of Bulgaria the Law for measurements and weights was postponed and finally admitted in 1889.
Key words: metric system, measurements, weights, law, regulation, vizier’s order, markets, traders
JEL: N 01; N 83
7. Between Economic Theory and Economic History: Notes on the Power, Markets and Entrepreneurs during the Bulgarian National Revival Period
Author: Ivaylo NAYDENOV
The proposed paper is devoted to some basic concepts such as power, markets and entrepreneurs. On the basis of some explanations and theoretical clarifications, I discuss their presence and role in the economic life during the Bulgarian National Revival period (19th century). Markets are created by enterprising people or function to meet their needs. In their turn, merchants carry out their activities by means of markets. In addition to specific places (the Uzundzhovo fair, the Sliven fair, etc.) where purchases and sales are made, markets may be considered as networks through which sellers and buyers interact with each other during the mentioned period. Goods, financial resources, information and trust, which are key to maintaining business relationships, circulate in the networks. Different types and levels of power are also important. They are crucial factor in case of unfair treatment or a dispute. Sometimes they are an obstacle that hinders enterprising people and their work. The proposed conclusions can certainly be enriched with more empirical data. However, I am convinced that economic theory would help to clearly define key terms, and the empirical data can illustrate and even correct imposed perceptions.
Key words: Bulgarian National Revival period, economic theory, power, markets, entrepreneurs
JЕL: N73; N83; N93; NZ13;NB55
8. The Economic Ethos of the Bulgarians during Revival Period through the Eyes of Vladimir Svintila
Author: Rumen ANDREEV
The Revival was the period of economic and cultural rise of Bulgarians, without an existence of a state. It is the result of economic freedom and spontaneous order without centralized state power. The establishment of Bulgarian state did not lead to great economic prosperity, but to the reconstruction of the free economy to centralized one. One of the erudite of Bulgarian Revival was Vladimir Svintila. In his research dedicated to mentality and folk psychology, he reveals the economic ethos of Bulgarians during this period. The purpose of this paper is to present a different point of view to economic life of the Bulgarians during the Revival period, which in our opinion is contained in the books of Vladimir Svintila. It reveals facts that popular history conceals as they are not similar to the idea of national centralized state. For the needs of the research comparative historical analyses is used along with the network approach to complex systems.
Key words: Revival, ethos, national state, spontaneous order, Vladimir Svintila
JEL: N60, P50, P49
9. Regional Municipality Councilors as Creditors: Concerning a Publication in the Dunav Newspaper of 1872
Author: Hristiyan ATANASOV
The article presents the Tanzimat (the reform period)–created municipality councils and their role in the Ottoman province administrative system. The focus is on the capitals that these councils successfully accumulated and managed. The employees will be presented responsible for the cash funds in the area and the amount of money. These financial assets were used for giving loans with interest. Yet another proof that when there is strong market demand, combined with feeble supply, the normative acts are usually ignored. The research is based on the published ten volumes
of Ottoman statistical yearly editions on the Danube area chronologically comprising the period from 1868/1869 to 1877/1878. Besides, several materials have been used taken from the officious newspaper Dunav (Danube). These represent the administrative framework where municipality councils are located and function. Special attention has been paid to one publication of 5th January 1872, which proves that the municipality councilors used to lend money with interest.
Key words: Ottoman history, Tanzimat, municipal councils, interest, yearbooks
JEL: N23, N25
10. Bulgarian Textile Manufacturers: A Social Profile, 1834–1912
Author: Martin IVANOV
Drawing from a large number of sources I have been able to identify 196 industrialists with relatively complete biographical data. The following bioindicators have been collected: the years (and, when possible, the dates) of birth and death, family origin (father’s profession and assessment of his property), education, position in the factory, previous or parallel economic activity, participation in the revolutionary movement (in including IMRO), membership in cultural, educational or professional organizations, party membership, high administrative positions and family ties. The generalized factory sociology is presented in tabular and narrative form and along with the general picture a focus is given on the first founding fathers from the classical Grunder period between 1880 and 1899.
Key words: Bulgarian textile manufacturers, industrialists, a social profile, biographical data, cultural, educational and professional organizations
JEL: N63, Z13
11. Land Property and Bulgarian Agrarian Development 1879–1912
Author: Pencho D. PENCHEV
During the period 1879 – 1912 in Bulgaria the security of private land ownership was very conditional. The rule of law also was not a well established practice. The paper identifies laws whose provisions were not implemented, normative acts, which, although considered as necessary, were not adopted for a long time, and laws, the application of which generates instability and uncertainty regarding land property. The described institutional disorders and the lack of state capacity contribute to retention of agriculture at a low level with primitive equipment, weak market affiliation and limited productivity.
Key words: land property state capacity, economic development
JEL: K11, N54
12. The Person, Society and the State as Driving Elements for the Post-Liberation Economic Progress of Bulgaria, Reflected n the Magazine “Industry” 1887–1890
Author: Margarita MARINOVA
The article presents the research papers dedicated to Bulgaria’s economic development in the 1880s selected by the Editorial Board of and published in the journal Industry printed in the town of Svishtov in the period 1887–1890. It puts an emphasis on the policy of openness and freedom adopted by the state, which, along with each individual citizen and the society as a whole are regarded the key drives for development. The paper discusses the various opinions regarding the achievements in each economic sector, the problems they face, and the causes for the slower rates of economic development. The journal regards the prosperity of the country as a function of free-market entrepreneurship and household savings as a source of capital investment rather than a return to protectionist policies and the accelerated integration of Bulgaria into the civilized world through harmonization of the relations between man and society.
Key words: economic development, protectionism, Bulgaria, entrepreneurship, agriculture, industry
13. The Economic Principles of the Liberal (Radoslavist) Party (Late 19th – Early 20th Century)
Author: Milko PALANGURSKI
At the end of the 19th century, the Bulgarian party structure was established, and through the mechanisms of the constitutional system, took over the government of the country and its political and economic modernization. The Liberal Party led by Dr. Vasil Radoslavov is one of the parties governing the country. Like the other parties, it kept its focus mainly on the political and not economic sphere. In their program, the liberals concretize their practical ideas. Their views on the protection and defense of agriculture, livestock, industry, trade and the introduction of a modern tax system are in line with the latest ideas of their time and fully meet the interests of the economic change of the state and the society.
Key words: Liberal party, program, economic outlook, realpolitik
JEL: N43, N93
14. The Second State Court (1910 – 1914) and the Charges against the Former Minister of War Mikhail Savov (1903 – 1907)
Author: Evgeny KOSTOV
The Institute for constitutional Ministerial criminal liability in Bulgaria is based on article 155–159 from the Constitution of the Bulgarian Principality, adopted in 1879. It provides for a specific procedure through which the members of the government to be judged outside of the civil courts. From 1880 to 1923, under this procedure four trials were held. In this case, we focus on the work of the Second State Court (1910 – 1914). It explores potential law violations committed by ministers from People`s Liberal Party of Bulgaria, during the period of 1903–1908. Later on, in 1913, the indictment was published. This paper analyzes the crimes of former Minister of War Mikhail Savov that are subject to an indictment. The author
comes to the conclusion that most of the allegations were unfounded. In 1914, as a result of political reasons, the decision of the Parliament was made to remove the criminal responsibility of the ministries.
Key words: ministerial criminal offenses, The Second State Court in Bulgaria (1910–1914), General Mikhail Savov
15. The Policy of the Holy Synod on the Organization of Monastic Lands into Farms in the Period 1913–1923
Author: Nikolay ATANASOV
The study traces the formation and development of the Church-Economic Department at the Holy Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. The
newly created structure aims to organize the monastery lands into efficient farms. With this purpose, a department was created, which monitors the work of monastery forests and one, which takes care of the fruits and vineyard distribution. In order to provide material support of the newly created structure, a Church-Monastery Fund was also created, which is filled up by surpluses of the church and monastery funds. Some distinct experts were involved in the Church-Monastery Department, who help in formation of its structures and in reaching high yields and quality of the cultivating seedlings and crops.
The successful development of the Church-Economic Department is hindered by the state policy. Alexander Stamboliyski’s regime brings in action the Law on Labor Land Ownership, which requires confiscation of uncultivated lands and its distribution to the needy population. The article of the law also applies to monastic lands. This policy has two irreversible consequences. One is connected to the gradual withdrawal of leading and specialized personnel out of the Church-Economic Department, and second is related to increasing the negative reaction of part of Synod elders and some abbots. The Church’s internal disagreements regarding the economic policy are caused by the centralization process and regulation of the economic activity and the exhaustion of the monastery funds, from which about 1/3 are being allocated for the benefit of different church funds.
Key words: Church-Economic Department, monastery farms, monastery economics, agriculture
JEL: Q 18, R 14
16. Continuity and Changes in the Economic Policy of the Bulgarian State during the Great Depression 1929–1934
Author: Marco DIMITROV
The predominant opinion in Bulgarian historiography on the consequences of the 19th of May 1934 coup d’état is that there was a significant change in the nature, directions and content of politico-economic life in Bulgaria. This dramatic change is considered a result of the new governmental policies. To some extent, this is correct statement for certain aspects of Bulgaria’s development during the second half of the 1930s, and until 1944. However, there are areas of public life in which there is clear continuity between the pre-coup anti-crisis policy of the Popular Block (Naroden blok) and that of the post-coup government led by Kimon Georgiev. Among areas of continuity is the economic policy aimed to overcome the negative effects of the Great Depression on Bulgarian economy. The problem of continuity in economic policy of Bulgaria during the 1930s has not been developed so far in Bulgarian historiography. This article aims to reveal the existence of continuity between the governments that ruled the country during the Great Depression and, to raise the general issue of continuity during the Third Bulgarian State.
Key words: The Great Depression in Bulgaria, economic policy, economic history of Bulgaria, Bulgaria in the 30s of the 20th century
JEL: N 10, N 24, N 44, N 84, N 94
17. The Bulgarian „capitalism“ and the Customs Policy in the 1920s and 1930s
Author: Peter STOYANOV
Bulgaria in the period between the two world wars was one of the countries that make extensive use of customs and customs policy as a powerful instrument for influencing trade, production and public finances. In this sense, this report aims at presenting trends, developmental features and clarifying the main factors responsible for the problematic status of customs duties and the customs regime. The customs policy is a very good barometer of the state of national capital and one of the important tools supporting its formation, also revealing very well the actual specifics of the ruling socio-economic system. For this reason, with the present publication the author aims also to pay attention to the problems related to the
adequacy of the terminology used to describe the economic system during that period.
Key words: customs, customs policy, duty-free imports, parasitic industry, crony capitalism, corporate socialism
JEL: N14, N24, N44
SECTION II. SETTLEMENT STUDIES AND INDIVIDUAL ECONOMIC ACTORS
18. Entrepreneurial Networks in the Ottoman Empire: The Case of Osman Inayet
Author: Dilek AKYALÇIN KAYA.
This article analyzes the dynamics of an entrepreneurial activity, mine exploitation, at the end of the nineteenth century in Salonica through the economic activities of an entrepreneur, Osman Inayet and proposes an evaluation of the complex relationships he created with other entrepreneurs through mining activities. Legal transformations concerning mining activities coupled with the economic growth due to the commercial expansion especially in port-cities such as Salonica in this period paved the way for an increase in the interest in mining activities. The mining activities of Osman Inayet, one of the entrepreneurs engaged in this sector, serve to analyze the components of the economic network he formed around this activity and lead us to enrich our comprehension about the nature of economic relations in Salonica at the end of the nineteenth century. Focusing on an individual
case provides a more comprehensive picture of individual choices, decisions, and experiences. Furthermore, this analysis, based on archival documents on mine concessions, provides new perspectives to our understanding of the inner mechanisms entrepreneurial activities.
Key words: Osman Inayet, entrepreneurship, Salonica, mining activities
JEL: N8, N5
19. Economic Characteristics and Development of Market Relations in Sevlievo (Selvi/ Servi) and the Kazа of Hotalich in the 16th – 17th Centuries (According to Data from Ottoman Registers of the Period)
Author: Krasimira MUTAFOVA
On the basis of partially published Ottoman register material from the 16th and 17th centuries and the published legislative acts of the Ottoman sultans – canuns and canunnames (laws and legislations), and etc., regulating the system of market duties and taxes in the Ottoman Empire, the author makes an attempt to outline the economic characteristics of the settlements – a total of 43 – from the nahi /kaza of Hotalich and the formation of market relations within its scope. The diverse and compact information contained in the selected for the purposes of the study mufassal (detailed, nominal) defters from 1516–1517, 1541–1545, 1613–1614 and 1642–1646 allows us to follow: the establishment of Servi/Selvi as the administrative center of the nahi/kaza Hotalich; to look for indications of its urban status; the formation of a separate market, as indicated by the inscribed market bac by Servi itself (bac-i bazar nefs-i Servi), and its transformation into a market center for the region. It is the commercial bac fee, which as a rule accompanies every transaction on the local city market (except for the purchase and sale of real estate – vineyards, gardens, mills, houses, shops) and is an important part of the system of market duties and taxes is a definite indicator of market activity in the studied settlements. Although it is dificult to reconstruct the picture of the city market only on the basis of the records in the mufassal defteris, which register only the volume of this activity, the applied deductive, conditionally speaking, and inductive method to the entered taxes and fees, reveal not only the whole set of cultivated crops and specific livelihoods of
the population, but also provide an opportunity to highlight those industries in the general production characteristics of the settlements of the nahi Hotalich, oriented to the market.
Key words: nahi/kaza Hotalich, Servi/Selvi, economic characteristic, Ottoman period, settlement structure, market fees, bac, Ottoman period, Mufassal defteris, kanun, kanunname
JEL: N53, N93
20. Between Two Centers of Power – Tarnovo and Constantinople. The Story of a Delegation from the 1850s
Author: Stanimir DIMITROV
In the 1840s and 1850s, a conflict broke out in the Tarnovo region between two warring parties. One was supporting the Metropolitan of Tarnovo, and the other – his opponent. Of course, this case cannot be separated from the main processes taking place in the Ottoman Empire. The Tanzimat reforms are considered to remain only on paper, but they gave a new spirit among the Bulgarian population in search of their identity against the old and difficult to reform Orthodox Church with the center of Constantinople. The appearance of rich and influential Bulgarians such as Hadzhi Mincho Hadzhi Tsachev and his interests affected by the Metropolitan of Tarnovo Neofit are the basis of our article. Each of the two warring parties sought
support not only from the local population, but also from government and church circles. A supporter of Metropolitan Neofit in Constantinople is Nikomidias, a person who has not been the subject of research. The representative of supreme Ottoman government in the person of Stefan Bogoridi also turned out to be a supporter of Neofit. Letters from the fund of Georgi Popsimenov (National Library – Sofia), a vekil of Tarnovska Kaza, who represented a delegation in defense of the Tarnovo Metropolitan Neophyte and their wandering in the labyrinth of bureaucratic Constantinople,
Key words: Tarnovo, kaza-vekil, Georgi Popsimeonov, Neofit, Hadzhi Mincho Gachev, Nikomidias, Dionisiy Kotakis, delegation, parties
JEL: N33, N83, N93
21. Socio-economic Development of Karlovo Region after 1878
Author: Aleksandar ZLATANOV
For the most part of the 19th century Karlovo region experienced a sharp rise in its socio-economic and demographic spheres, to end the century, after the Liberation in 1878, with a significant decline in its economic potential, and hence the demographic situation of the region. In the first half of the 19th century, the sub-Balkan settlements, led by the regional capital Karlovo, formed a popular center of proto-industrial development of the textile industry in the European part of the Ottoman Empire through a number of crafts, but mostly through braiding. For example, in the third quarter of the 19th century, there were about 2,000 braid machines in Karlovo, producing more than 339,730 kg of braid per year. Together with the neighboring villages of Sopot and Kalofer, where approx. 1700 additional braiding machines were located, the region occupied the leading position in the production of braid products in the Ottoman Empire during the 1860s and 1870s. The end of the Russo-Turkish Liberation War found the region of Karlovo in a difficult socio-economic situation. The war and the atrocities of the bashibozouks resulted in destruction and mass emigration in the main craft centers of Karlovo, Kalofer, and Sopot. The new socio-economic and geopolitical reality offered a brand new way of production and marketing of products in completely new markets, where the ordinary Bulgarian craftsman and trader had to compete with the experienced competitors and industrialists from Central and Western Europe. The newly introduced tariffs significantly increased the product’s export price, and thus the urban population in Rumelia gradually began preferring cheaper imported goods and raw materials. As a result, the main livelihood of sub-Balkan urban town centers remained the declining crafts, most notably braid production, but the local and the central government failed to help and slow the economic collapse. The other significant subsistence industry in those towns was the rose gardens and rose production, which was also widespread in the region. Apart from the few towns, the rest of over 40 villages in the region subsisted mainly on agriculture, horticulture, and cattle breeding in the years after the Liberation. In conclusion, it could be said that the transition from proto-industrial to factory production proved unsuccessful in the first decades after the Liberation, despite a few successful initiatives and productions. One of the factors for this, especially in the region of Karlovo is, among other things, also the demographic factor.
Key words: Karlovo, Karlovo region, socio-economic development, economic characteristics, textile and rose production, demographics.
JEL: N33, N53, N93, O13
22. The Economic Policy of Svishtov Municipality during the Rule of Mayor Hristo Teodorov (1887–1893)
Author: Emilia VACHEVA
The article traces the economic policy of Svishtov municipality during the rule of the mayor Hristo Teodorov (1887–1893). His rule coincided with the active economic policy of the cabinet of Stefan Stambolov (1887–1894). The measures that the municipal government takes to help traders, entrepreneurs and the development of the infrastructure of the municipality are analyzed. It is concluded that the greatest assistance provided by the municipality to local businesses is through the construction of modern infrastructure.
Key words: economic policy, trade, infrastructure, landscaping, tax system
23. Payments in Kind in the Educational Activities, Craft Training and School Actions in Bulgarian Lands during the Revival Period and in the First Decades of the 20th Century. Notes and Materials
Author: Miroslav TOSHEV
This work presents the consecutive fourth part of gathered primary material on the topic of the natural trade and service payments in Bulgarian lands through the second half of 19th and the first decades of 20th centuries. I hope that the represented materials can serve for a good basis about further researches as the distant goal is to reveal the system of paying in kind in Bulgarian lands and to reconstruct the economic models from the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Key words: Bulgarian lands: end of the 19th century; first decades of the 20th century, payments in kind, exchange in kind, teachers, schools, donations